Technical Articles


DDR5 Signal Integrity Fundamentals

The most notable difference between DDR5 and previous generations is the introduction of decision feedback equalization, a technique used in serial link systems to improve the integrity of received signals.  In the wake of the new technology, this short article outlines some of the fundamental signal integrity concepts in the context of DDR5.

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Underwater Wireless Communication Using EM Waves

Disasters at sea remind us repeatedly of the importance of underwater (seawater) research; including the design and analysis of short range, high bandwidth (MHz), higher data rates (Mbps) and high propagation velocity approximately near to free space (≈3*107 m/sec with minimum latency) underwater electromagnetic (EM) communication systems. This article discusses details about this type of communications.

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Satellite Antenna Diversity

Ka-band in satellite communications plays an increasing important role today. However, at higher frequencies, electromagnetic wave absorption increases. At Ka-band frequencies this can lead to service interruptions and performance degradation during rain fades. With high atmospheric losses, conventional fade margin approaches such as adaptive-waveform techniques or adaptive-power control techniques are not sufficient for compensation. For reliable and highly available operations, only site diversity configurations on the ground provide an adequate, fail safe solutions.

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