White Papers

Analysis of Nonlinear Active Devices Including True Balanced Differential Measurements

VNAs have been the workhorse of microwave measurements for many years. They provide the ability to measure S parameters of active and passive devices and systems. When measuring active devices, these measurements are made on small signal devices where gain is linear. When measuring small signal amplifiers, the linear VectorStar VNA provides many built-in functions to thoroughly analyze these active devices. Applications such as built-in programmable power sweeps for gain compression analysis at multiple frequency points, IMD measurements, harmonic measurements, characterization down to 70 kHz to evaluate memory effects, etc., are all available in the VectorStar VNA. Table 1 provides a brief overview of the capabilities of the MS4640A family of VectorStar VNAs.
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R&S MATLAB® Toolkit for Signal Generators and Power Sensors

MATLAB is widely used for the simulation of communication systems as well as for the creation or analysis of custom signals. The MATLAB Toolkit provides functions that link the Rohde & Schwarz instruments to the MATLAB environment. For this purpose the toolkit contains scripts for the most common tasks, such as instrument remote control and data transfer.
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MIMO Over-the-Air Testing

Traditional conducted-signal testing of mobile devices provides a more repeatable testing environment than testing with a radiated signal. However, the planned evolution of Fourth-Generation (4G) wireless technologies is critically dependent on Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna configurations, which promise significant data-rate increases based on moderate increases in complexity. Therefore, an over-the-air (OTA) testing methodology is needed to account for antenna behavior within the device evaluation.
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Solutions for Characterizing High-power Devices

High-power devices are common building blocks in RF and microwave communication systems. One such device, the high-power amplifier, plays an especially critical role in today’s mobile phones, base stations for cellular and mobile wireless infrastructure and satellite communication systems. In the base station market, for example, high power amplifiers approaching 100 watts are typical. To obtain the most power from these devices, engineers are forced to push them to their limit, often driving them into the nonlinear region of operation. Such nonlinear behavior can be problematic to the amplifier and is typically a contributing factor in wasted frequency spectrum in communication applications. Accurately characterizing and understanding this behavior is critical to enabling today’s engineer to design and verify efficient high-power devices like amplifiers.
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Semiconductor Obsolescence Leads to Gray Market Practices

technology continues to advance, there are an ever-increasing number of semiconductors that are declared EOL (End Of Life) by the original manufacturers. For industries that require extended product support, there is a never-ending need for obsolete or discontinued semiconductors, which has led some companies toward the use of the semiconductor gray market, which has many inherent risks.
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