White Papers

App Note: Crystal Oscillator Based Clean-Up Modules

Modern electronic equipment like Radar, Test and Measurement, Instrumentation, Avionics, require precision frequency sources with low phase noise. Although frequency accuracy and precision can be derived from atomic clocks, low phase noise often is not. NEL Frequency Controls Clean-Up VCXO bridges the gap by offering a complementary low phase noise solution to go along with use of atomic clocks. NEL’s application note “Crystal Oscillator Based Clean-up Modules” addresses improving the phase noise of atomic clocks as well as other types of precision frequency sources.


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Smart IoT Applications and Environments: Key Antenna Considerations in Designing Your Smart Ecosystem

In this trend paper, TE will cover technological challenges, explore specific demands, and share considerations for selecting the optimal antenna for IoT applications.

Key Highlights:

  • How the growing use cases of IoT are posing challenges for wireless connectivity
  • Insights on smart building and smart tracking applications trends and challenges

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App Note: Basic RF Amplifier Measurements using the R&S® ZNB Vector Network Analyzer and “SMARTerCal”

The family of ZNB vector network analyzers (VNA) from Rohde & Schwarz are the perfect instruments for analyzing RF amplifier small signal linear and non-linear performance. This application note presents information on how to configure and use the R&S® ZNB vector network analyzer to successfully make accurate and quick measurement of basic RF amplifier parameters.


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Teledyne e2v

On the way to RF Softwarization, Teledyne e2v Data Converters Push Digital Signal Processing Boundaries with Direct Access to Ka-Band

The path toward fully software-defined satellites that deliver on-orbit reconfigurability and transponder re-use

Microwave RF softwarization in the Ka-band will upend satellite air interface design & deliver substantially more versatile platforms over the next decade. The disruptions impacting the space industry suggest the necessity of a development path towards fully software-defined satellites or SoftSats that deliver on-orbit reconfigurability and transponder re-use.


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Understanding Suspended Substrate Stripline Filters

Suspended substrate filter technology uses air cavity construction achieve high Q and avoid the adverse effects of dielectric materials used in traditional stripline construction. The resulting performance gives designers the advantages of wide passbands with low insertion loss and stopband rejection on the order of 100 dB with fast roll-off. This paper reviews the fundamentals of suspended substrate filters, key performance features and the unique manufacturing challenges associated with these useful building blocks for wideband systems.


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RF to Millimeter-Wave Front-End Component Design Trends for 5G Communications

RF front-end architectures grow more complex with each generation of communication systems. To accommodate these architectures, more densification and miniaturization is taking place with electronic systems implemented through innovations in system-in-package (SiP) design. Cadence offers the broadest, most integrated design solution to bring the Intelligent System Design™ strategy to the communication products of the future.


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Automatic Fixture Removal with Copper Mountain Technologies VNA

Automatic Fixture Removal (AFR) is a simple and an accurate way to de-embed a measurement fixture. These fixtures are typically used when measuring Surface Mount Device (SMD) type components to provide an interface from the Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) test port cables to the Device Under Test (DUT). The main challenge when characterizing such components is to completely isolate the actual DUT characteristics from the fixture; which becomes even more challenging at higher frequencies.


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Phased Array Antenna Patterns—Part 3: Sidelobes and Tapering

In Part 1, we introduced the phased array concept, beam steering, and array gain. In Part 2, we presented the concept of grating lobes and beam squint. In this section, we begin with a discussion of antenna sidelobes and the effect of tapering across an array. Tapering is simply the manipulation of the amplitude contribution of an individual element to the overall antenna response.


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Comparison of Time Domain Scans and Stepped Frequency Scans in EMI Test Receivers

Taking the R&S ESR EMI test receiver as an example, this paper looks at a CISPR 16-1-1- compliant test instrument with time domain scanning capabilities. The paper compares the measurement speed and level measurement accuracy of a conventional stepped frequency scan versus an advanced FFT-based time domain scan. It also contains guidance on making optimum use of time domain scans.


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