White Papers

Rohde and Schwarz

Conformance test failed. What now?

Conformance tests are performed on serial data interfaces such as USB, HDMI and PCI Express to ensure interoperability between electronic devices and accessories. In cases where signal integrity problems are encountered, the R&S®RTP oscilloscope supports root cause analysis by providing powerful tools such as eye diagrams, jitter and noise separation as well as time domain reflectometry.

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RadioThorium: a 24 to 44GHz Transmitter and Receiver

24-44 GHz RadioThorium Block up- and down-Converter

The RFPD-RT-2444-1 mmWave converter is a standalone solution for use in the 24 to 44 GHz range and is branded “RadioThorium.” The 24-44 GHz RadioThorium block up- and down-converter was developed by Signal Craft Technologies (Calgary, Canada) in partnership with Richardson RFPD and Analog Devices. The module is designed to interface directly with an external baseband platform, such as Analog Devices’ MxFE (Mixed- Signal Front-End) or similar SDR IC. Up to x4 modules can be combined in parallel to create complex MIMO applications.

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Broadband Chokes for Bias Tee Applications

In broadband bias applications, most inductors do not cover enough impedance bandwidth. Bandwidth can be increased by putting three or four inductors in series, but DC losses and filter complexity increase. Instead, a broadband bias choke provides wide bandwidth in a single inductor package.

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Rohde Schwarz

Understanding EVM

This paper provides an introduction to error vector magnitude (EVM), which is the primary metric of modulation accuracy. It discusses the fundamentals of the digital modulation schemes used in modern radio frequency communications systems, in particular, APSK and QAM, the fundamentals of error vector magnitude, and basics of constellation diagrams and how constellation diagrams can often be used to diagnose or troubleshoot the common root causes of EVM.

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AR RF/Microwave Instrumentation

Multi-Tone Testing Theory & Practice

Multi-tone testing has many benefits. While the multi-tone method was initially implemented to increase the speed of IEC 61000-4-3 radiated immunity testing, it has been found that this method also improves equipment efficiency, offers greater flexibility to truly test the equipment (EUT) under real-world threat conditions, and can be fully compliant to standards.

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Rohde Schwarz USA

Fundamentals of THz technology for 6G

The prospect of offering large contiguous frequency bands to meet the demand for extremely high data transfer rates in the Tbit/s range is making terahertz (THz) waves a key research area for the next generation of wireless communications (6G). This white paper offers an overview of the fundamentals of THz waves and their properties for various applications with a focus on 6G based communications.

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In-Design Thermal Analysis for MMIC and RF PCB Power Applications

Next-generation electronic systems often demand increased RF power within a smaller footprint to meet demanding performance and size requirements. This paper discusses the impact of operating temperature on RF device performance and presents a thermal analysis solution in which the Cadence Celsius Thermal Solver is integrated with the AWR Design Environment RF/microwave platform.

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