White Papers

Antenna Basics

This white paper describes the basic functionality of antennas. Starting with Hertz's Antenna model followed by a short introduction to the fundamentals of wave propagation, the important general characteristics of an antenna and its associated parameters are explained.


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RF Basics & Real Time

Radio frequency (RF) waves are fascinating natural phenomena that have allowed humanity to create tools to communicate over vast distances, observe other worlds, and gain a deeper understanding of our own planet. They are also ubiquitous here on Earth. We are surrounded by RF waves created by human technology, like the signals produced by radio and television stations and mobile phones, as well as signals emitted by natural sources like pulsars and supernovae scattered throughout the universe.


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NI AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT: Load-Pull Primer for Optimizing PA Performance

Power amplifier (PA) performance under small- and large-signal operating conditions is contingent upon the output impedance match (load). As a result, PA designers must determine the ideal output load for system-driven amplifier requirements such as output power at a given saturated power (compression point), efficiency, and/or linearity.


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