ARTICLES

Rohde and Schwarz

Conformance test failed. What now?

Conformance tests are performed on serial data interfaces such as USB, HDMI and PCI Express to ensure interoperability between electronic devices and accessories. In cases where signal integrity problems are encountered, the R&S®RTP oscilloscope supports root cause analysis by providing powerful tools such as eye diagrams, jitter and noise separation as well as time domain reflectometry.


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Rohde Schwarz

Understanding EVM

This paper provides an introduction to error vector magnitude (EVM), which is the primary metric of modulation accuracy. It discusses the fundamentals of the digital modulation schemes used in modern radio frequency communications systems, in particular, APSK and QAM, the fundamentals of error vector magnitude, and basics of constellation diagrams and how constellation diagrams can often be used to diagnose or troubleshoot the common root causes of EVM.


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