White Papers

Solutions for Securing Successful First-pass Component Design

At one time, linear systems and components were designed using a patchwork of instrumentation and measurements. This approach was quickly replaced by scattering parameters (S-parameters), which unified the multiple instruments and measurements and enabled just one instrument, the network analyzer, to make measurements like gain, isolation and match with a single connection. For more than 40 years, S-parameters have stood as one of the most important of all the foundations of microwave theory and techniques. They are related to familiar measurements such as S11 input match, S22 output match, S21 gain/loss, and S12 isolation, and can be easily imported into electronic simulation tools. Today, S-parameters are commonly used to analyze and model the linear behavior of RF and microwave components. Unfortunately, current industry trends toward increasing energy efficiency, higher output power and longer battery life are forcing many linear devices to operate in a nonlinear fashion. Measuring this behavior requires a solution that is much more deterministic in nature.
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CoMPA™: An Innovation in Satellite Antenna Technology

Starling’s patented CoMPA™ (Coherent Multi Panel Antenna) technology is based on coherently splitting (or combining) a flat-panel, large antenna array into multiple plates. This mechanical splitting enables achievement of a very low-profile, high-gain antenna, with equivalent performance to that of much higher profile antenna. Starling antennas are Kuband-based and provide both receipt and transmission of heavy data files, voice, and video.
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T3 Mixer Primer: A Mixer for the 21st Century

Intermodulation distortion (IMD) suppression is a critical issue in modern military and commercial RF/microwave systems. Pressed by the demands imposed by distortion‐sensitive digital modulation formats, modern systems routinely specify linearity requirements that are impossible to attain using conventional approaches. To meet these new challenges, Marki Microwave has introduced the Two‐Tone‐Terminator (T3) mixer family. The T3 mixer is the most sophisticated mixer circuit on the market today and offers unparalleled performance when compared to all other mixer technologies. This Primer describes the key operating principles of the T3 mixer and compares the performance against traditional double balanced mixers.

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Solutions for Sharing IP-Protected Nonlinear Behavioral Models with System Integrators


RF system design is a notoriously complex and challenging endeavor, made even more so by today’s stringent time-to-market requirements. Meeting these requirements places increasing pressure on system integrators to speed the system-design process wherever possible. One viable option for addressing these concerns lies in the ability to evaluate real circuit-level designs from design houses/component vendors within the system context, early in the design process and prior to the availability of a physical hardware prototype.

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Reconfigurable And Cost-Effective FET Mixer

This paper describes a reconfigurable resistive passive FET mixer co-designed with a reconfigurable VCO (voltage controlled oscillator) that acts as a LO (local oscillator), can operate with low noise figure, and high dynamic range without the need of external BALUN (balance-to-unbalance) network. The typical measured input intercept points (IIP3) and conversion loss is 38dBm and 8.5dB with the LO power typically 15dBm for the frequency bands (RF: 700-2300MHz, LO: 650-2100MHz, IF: 50-200MHz).
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