This paper introduces the fundamental theory behind beamforming antennas. In addition, calculation methods for radiation patterns with simulations results, as well as some real world measurement results for small linear arrays are shown. Due to the likely bandwidths in such applications, a non-standard way of graphical representation is proposed.
Concrete and confined use cases such as mobile voice in 2G and mobile data in 4G dominated the definition of past cellular technologies. In contrast, 5G introduces a paradigm change towards a user/application centric technology framework that aims to support the following triangle of important use case families. The enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) use case represents the well-known continuation of the ever-increasing requirement to support both higher peak data rates per user and more system capacity. Learn more about this hot topic in our Whitepaper.
LTE user equipment (UE) receiver performance has significant impact to cellular radio network coverage and capacity. It determines the maximum data throughput across the air interface between the LTE base station (eNB, evolved node B) and the mobile network subscriber UE, thus it determines the total capacity across the air interface. Therefore, it is one of the most important measurements to verify the actual receiver performance of individual devices, and a key metric to compare different devices, in particular.
Detailed review of radar waveforms for aerospace and defense, commercial radar systems, including radar sensors used in automotive safety applications. Learn more on continuous waveform trends designed for specific needs, and application differences of continuous wave radar vs. pulse radar systems.
There is a growing requirement for determining the location of emitters in radiomonitoring, security services, military intelligence, etc. Spectral components used in spread-spectrum techniques can only be allocated to a specific emitter if the direction is known. Direction finding is therefore an indispensable first step in radiodetection.
This white paper describes the basic functionality of antennas. Starting with Hertz's Antenna model followed by a short introduction to the fundamentals of wave propagation, the important general characteristics of an antenna and its associated parameters are explained.
The new R&S RT-ZVC02/04 multichannel power probe can measure across large current and voltage ranges without having to switch ranges, making it possible to monitor the power consumption of chipsets, radio modules and wearables such as smartwatches. When used in combination with an R&S RTE or R&S RTO oscilloscope, the current drain can be clearly correlated with analog and digital control signals, enabling developers to optimize the battery life of such wearables and wireless devices early in the development cycle.
The R&S RTO2000 model with 6 GHz bandwidth allows developers to test the radio interfaces of 802.11ac WLAN components for IoT modules in the 5 GHz band as well as fast communications interfaces such as USB 3.1 Gen 1 with data rates of 5 Gbit/s. Thanks to its multi-domain functionality, only a single compact instrument is needed to analyze power supplies, processors and sensors with up to 6 GHz bandwidth.
The new R&S RT-ZP1X passive 1:1 probe from Rohde & Schwarz broadens the application range of its R&S RTO and R&S RTE series oscilloscopes. Both the probe and the oscilloscopes' front-end are extremely low noise, making this combination ideal for measuring the smallest of signals down to 1 mV/div, e.g., for power integrity measurements on integrated circuits and components.