Technical Library/White Papers

Collection of white papers for a technical library.


Optimizing 5G Base Station Antenna Design with High-performance Specialty Polymers

As engineers create new designs for 5G base station antennas, circuit boards and other system components, they are utilizing new high-performance specialty polymers that can achieve stable RF quality, low system cost and high productivity for these components. These materials include high-temperature thermoplastics such as polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) and fluoropolymers.

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ATE Strategy For mmWave Mass Market Production

The automated test and measurement (ATE) landscape is rapidly changing, progressing beyond the capabilities of traditional bench-top and most legacy ATE systems. Varying and diverse performance requirements, testing speeds and frequencies used by modern cellular architectures (5G), Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices, and the latest feature dense systems-on-chip/systems-inpackage (SoC/SiP) necessitate a different approach.

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Wireless Charging

Design Challenges of Public infrastructures for Automotive Wireless Charging

One regularly cited inhibitor to even faster adoption is the need for a public charging infrastructure that is universally available. The technical teams behind these infrastructures are working diligently to both increase the number of currently available plug-in stations as well as drive technological innovation and drive down costs to deliver wireless charging infrastructures available in both public and private spaces. This article examines several of the technical challenges that must be solved to bring this to fruition. First, let’s review the current state of WPT in general, and in automotive applications specifically.

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Johanson Caps

The ‘Relativity’ of High Q Capacitors

Although many High Q capacitors are available on the market, performance can vary widely

For many high power RF applications, the “Q factor” of embedded capacitors is one of the most important characteristics in the design of circuits.  This includes products such as cellular/telecomm equipment, MRI coils, plasma generators, lasers and other medical, military and industrial electronics. This article explains the importance of Q and how to select capacitors with high Q.

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All Silicon Active Antennas for High Performance mmWave Systems

Presented at EDI CON USA 2018

Active antennas, or phased arrays, have been widely used for many years. The first phased array applications were mainly military with systems deployed as early as the mid-1970s. Recent industry trends have shown a rapid increase in the use of this technology for both radar and communication systems, along with a push into the mmWave spectrum. This paper will explain the market changes behind these trends and the implications for the future.

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RF Front-end Technology and Tradeoffs for 5G mmWave Fixed Wireless Access

Presented at EDI CON USA 2018

In this technical paper, we analyze the architecture, semiconductor technology, and RF front-end (RFFE) design needed to deliver mmWave FWA services. Discussing topics such as: Scan-angle requirements, Tradeoffs of Hybrid-beamforming versus All-Digital Beamforming for the Base Transceiver Station (BTS),Analyze BTS semiconductor technology and RF front-end components, and Gallium-Nitride on Silicon Carbide (GaN-on-SiC) front-end modules (FEMs) designed specifically for the 5G FWA

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Bits to Beams – RF Technology Evolution for 5G mmwave Radios

Presented at EDI CON USA 2018

This article is organized into 3 major topics. In the first section, we will discuss some of the leading use cases for mmwave communications and set the stage for the analysis that follows. In the second and third sections we will delve into the architectures and technology for the mmwave basestation systems. In section 2 we will discuss technology for the beamformers and how the required transmit power influences the choice of technology for the system front-end. While the beamformer gets much of the spotlight in the press, there is equally important section of the radio that performs the conversion from bits to mmwave frequency. We will present an example signal chain for this section of the system and suggest some leading-edge components from Analog Devices for radio designer’s consideration.

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5G COTS system

Digital Equalization of mmWave Analog Frequency Up and Down-converters

It is a known fact that time interleaving of Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC) is used to increase sampling rate of modern high-performance digitizers. A recent high performance example is the 10-bit digitizers from Guzik Technical Enterprises (GTE) that feature Keysight Technologies ADC Integrated Circuit (IC) where 160 individual ADC are interleaved to achieve sampling at up to 64 Gsa/s (160 “slices” sampling at 400 Msa/s) forming two analog channels at 32 Gsa/s each.

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Proper Measurement of Mixer Spurious Content

Depending on system requirements, there are multiple ways of dealing with these problematic signals. Careful frequency planning and filtering can help to drastically reduce the number of spurs, but they’re always going to be there. Therefore, it’s important for a systems designer to accurately measure the spurious levels at the output of a mixer in order to determine how best to handle them.

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NI AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT: Load-Pull Primer for Optimizing PA Performance

Power amplifier (PA) performance under small- and large-signal operating conditions is contingent upon the output impedance match (load). As a result, PA designers must determine the ideal output load for system-driven amplifier requirements such as output power at a given saturated power (compression point), efficiency, and/or linearity.
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