Technical Library/White Papers

Collection of white papers for a technical library.

ARTICLES

Application Note: Improving R&S®FSWP Measurement Speed

For automated test applications, measurement time is often as important as the quality of the measurement. In practice, phase noise measurements are generally not considered fast, but test engineers still desire to save as much test time as possible. With this paper you get a modern, digital signal processing based, phase-noise test set that performs many tasks in parallel in an effort to improve measurement speed.


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Time Domain Analysis with a VNA

A Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) natively measures complex S-parameters of a device under test (DUT) in the frequency domain mode by sweeping across various frequency points. While there is an exhaustive list of measurements that can be accomplished in the standard frequency domain mode – using the advanced inverse Chirp z-transformation, the measurements can also be simultaneously analyzed in the time domain mode. This gives the added advantage where the two fundamental modes of analysis can be performed by one single instrument.


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Making History: Advanced System in a Package Technologies Enable Direct RF Conversion

RF data conversion systems are experiencing rapid changes as ADC and DAC performance specifications and form factors, along with new sensor technologies (Rx & Tx), continue to advance. One system level design problem has been consistent throughout—balancing the implementation tradeoffs between the analog and digital circuitry for maximum software/system flexibility (from sensor to the digital processing units’ input/output).


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App Note: Crystal Oscillator Based Clean-Up Modules

Modern electronic equipment like Radar, Test and Measurement, Instrumentation, Avionics, require precision frequency sources with low phase noise. Although frequency accuracy and precision can be derived from atomic clocks, low phase noise often is not. NEL Frequency Controls Clean-Up VCXO bridges the gap by offering a complementary low phase noise solution to go along with use of atomic clocks. NEL’s application note “Crystal Oscillator Based Clean-up Modules” addresses improving the phase noise of atomic clocks as well as other types of precision frequency sources.


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Smart IoT Applications and Environments: Key Antenna Considerations in Designing Your Smart Ecosystem

In this trend paper, TE will cover technological challenges, explore specific demands, and share considerations for selecting the optimal antenna for IoT applications.

Key Highlights:

  • How the growing use cases of IoT are posing challenges for wireless connectivity
  • Insights on smart building and smart tracking applications trends and challenges

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Understanding Suspended Substrate Stripline Filters

Suspended substrate filter technology uses air cavity construction achieve high Q and avoid the adverse effects of dielectric materials used in traditional stripline construction. The resulting performance gives designers the advantages of wide passbands with low insertion loss and stopband rejection on the order of 100 dB with fast roll-off. This paper reviews the fundamentals of suspended substrate filters, key performance features and the unique manufacturing challenges associated with these useful building blocks for wideband systems.


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RF to Millimeter-Wave Front-End Component Design Trends for 5G Communications

RF front-end architectures grow more complex with each generation of communication systems. To accommodate these architectures, more densification and miniaturization is taking place with electronic systems implemented through innovations in system-in-package (SiP) design. Cadence offers the broadest, most integrated design solution to bring the Intelligent System Design™ strategy to the communication products of the future.


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Automatic Fixture Removal with Copper Mountain Technologies VNA

Automatic Fixture Removal (AFR) is a simple and an accurate way to de-embed a measurement fixture. These fixtures are typically used when measuring Surface Mount Device (SMD) type components to provide an interface from the Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) test port cables to the Device Under Test (DUT). The main challenge when characterizing such components is to completely isolate the actual DUT characteristics from the fixture; which becomes even more challenging at higher frequencies.


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DOCUMENTS AND FILES

NI AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT: Load-Pull Primer for Optimizing PA Performance

Power amplifier (PA) performance under small- and large-signal operating conditions is contingent upon the output impedance match (load). As a result, PA designers must determine the ideal output load for system-driven amplifier requirements such as output power at a given saturated power (compression point), efficiency, and/or linearity.
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