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White Papers

ARTICLES

Head to Head: NI PXIe-5665 Versus Traditional Boxed Instruments

NIThis paper discusses the setup details for the demo shown in this video Head to Head: NI 5665 vs. Traditional Boxed Instruments. The demo compares the performance and speed of the NI PXIe-5665 with the Agilent PXA. Rather than comparing the datasheet specifications of both instruments, this video compares the two instruments while performing real- world test scenarios.


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50V LDMOS

An ideal RF Power Technology for ISM, Broadcast and Commercial Aerospace Applications

RF laterally diffused MOS (LDMOS) is currently the dominant device technology used in high-power RF power amplifier (PA) applications for frequencies ranging from 1 MHz to greater than 3.5 GHz. This paper will include device and design considerations that specifically target enhancing ruggedness performance. The features of the products using this platform will also be presented.


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RFID objects monitoring in space bounded by metallic walls.

Considered problem is the reading of multiple RFID tags in the region of space, which is bounded by metal walls and has resonant radio-engineering properties. Obtained results show that it is possible to get reliable automated monitoring of items with tags by forming of a local electromagnetic field (EMF) with the help of slow-wave structures (SWS).
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DOCUMENTS AND FILES

7 Tips for Selecting Modular Test Equipment for Wireless Applications

Many multifunction devices require wider bandwidths, complex modulation schemes and multiple transmit and receive chains, which significantly increases device complexity and test expense. This application note provides useful tips on how to select the right test instruments which enable you to reduce design time, increase production throughput, and ultimately reduce your costs associated with test.

Expanding GNSS Testing

Read this white paper to learn more about how you can expand GNSS spectrum coverage by capturing RF signals from all GNSS orbiting satellites, then storing and playing the signals back in the lab to accelerate receiver testing. In order to greatly expand recording bandwidth, you can deploy multiple tightly synchronized recorders in the field. Averna, an NI Platinum Alliance Partner, studied the example of two RP-5300 recorders (2x50 MHz channels each) that were synchronously inter-connected to form a virtual recorder with total bandwidth of 200 MHz.

Peak Power Meters for Crest Factor and Scalar Measurements using Broadband OFMD Signals

A critical component of a base station is the power amplifier (PA). Over the past two decades the PA has experienced monumental changes in its architecture and performance. Two significant improvements have been in power-added efficiency & bandwidth. Fifteen years ago a 2G basestation PA housed in a ground base station cabinet would output 5 MHz multi carrier CDMA signals at 40 W; running at 5% efficiency it would generate 760 W of heat, taking up a significant amount of space, power and cooling resources and costing thousands of dollars. Today's 4G amplifiers using Doherty architecture with predistortion has improved the efficiency of an amplifier to over 35%, significantly reducing the size and enabling integration of the PA with the transceiver and the duplexer into a remote radio head (RRH) placed near the antenna.

Simple Method of Changing the Frequency Range of a Power Amplifier Circuit

This paper offers a description of a process to change the operating frequency range of an existing power amplifier circuit using only Smith chart and transmission line calculation software, demonstrating that experimental tuning and review with a Smith chart can avoid the possibility of creating an untenable design. It also addresses the possibilities of applying this approach to other RF power outputs, frequency range conversions and bandwidth extensions, as long as several key caveats are observed.

Addressing the 4G and 5G Backhaul Capacity Challenge with Air Division Duplexing

Achieving sufficient capacity to meet the forecast backhaul needs over the next few years will be a major challenge. This white paper describes the technique of Air Division Duplexing (ADD), which makes use of MIMO and spatial multiplexing techniques to achieve simultaneous transmission and reception of data on each carrier frequency, and has been shown to achieve full duplex data rates1 in excess of 1 Gb/s in a 28 MHz channel allocation2 in the microwave bands.

Addressing Test Challenges for new LTE-Advanced Standard

While LTE-Advanced brings the promise of higher data rates, designing devices for use in LTE-A offer new test challenges. This paper provides an overview of LTE MIMO and carrier aggregation technologies and describes different methodologies for testing these new capabilities including multi-antenna techniques, MIMO spatial multiplexing, beam steering, as well as the different carrier aggregation modes.

A Foundation in Thin Film Circuit Manufacturing

Metrigraphics' thin film process is a fundamental technology uniquely suited to the task of making miniature circuits with extremely small and uniform features that have extremely consistent electrical performance throughout. The process also tends to be much faster and less wasteful than subtractive manufacturing methods like chemical etching. That's because only the conductive material needed to define the circuit geometry is being deposited, which results in in a manufacturing process that is more efficient and less wasteful.

Modern Vector Network Analyzer Test Solutions Improve On-Wafer Measurement Efficiency

Semiconductor manufacturing test engineers face challenges related to broadband millimeter wave (MMW) on-wafer testing. Achieving accurate, stable measurements, typically performed using VNAs, over extended time periods is a challenge for foundries and fab-less semiconductor companies that require extensive on-wafer devices testing. This paper examines the impact of calibration downtime during on-wafer testing and recent advances enabling longer time periods between calibrations.

Design of Class F Power Amplifiers Using Cree GaN HEMTs and Microwave Office Software to Optimize Gain, Efficiency, and Stability

This white paper discusses the design of power amplifiers employing Cree GaN HEMTs and NI AWR Design Environment / Microwave Office circuit design software to maximize power-added efficiency (PAE) by optimizing source and load pull at both fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The load-pull scripts within Microwave Office�  are used to find the optimum trade-offs in power gain, efficiency, and stability. The article describes the basis of Class F PA and inverse Class F design F, as well as a new approach called continuous Class F, which enables greater bandwidths to be realized. Several practical design examples are given, including the inspection of voltage and current waveforms for both packaged and bare die transistors in the 10 to 25 watt power range for frequencies up to 2.5 GHz. In addition, the ways in which the Microwave Office load pull wizard can be used to investigate fundamental and harmonic impedances both at the input and output of transistors are discussed.

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