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White Papers

ARTICLES

Head to Head: NI PXIe-5665 Versus Traditional Boxed Instruments

NIThis paper discusses the setup details for the demo shown in this video Head to Head: NI 5665 vs. Traditional Boxed Instruments. The demo compares the performance and speed of the NI PXIe-5665 with the Agilent PXA. Rather than comparing the datasheet specifications of both instruments, this video compares the two instruments while performing real- world test scenarios.


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50V LDMOS

An ideal RF Power Technology for ISM, Broadcast and Commercial Aerospace Applications

RF laterally diffused MOS (LDMOS) is currently the dominant device technology used in high-power RF power amplifier (PA) applications for frequencies ranging from 1 MHz to greater than 3.5 GHz. This paper will include device and design considerations that specifically target enhancing ruggedness performance. The features of the products using this platform will also be presented.


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RFID objects monitoring in space bounded by metallic walls.

Considered problem is the reading of multiple RFID tags in the region of space, which is bounded by metal walls and has resonant radio-engineering properties. Obtained results show that it is possible to get reliable automated monitoring of items with tags by forming of a local electromagnetic field (EMF) with the help of slow-wave structures (SWS).
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DOCUMENTS AND FILES

Addressing the 4G and 5G Backhaul Capacity Challenge with Air Division Duplexing

Achieving sufficient capacity to meet the forecast backhaul needs over the next few years will be a major challenge. This white paper describes the technique of Air Division Duplexing (ADD), which makes use of MIMO and spatial multiplexing techniques to achieve simultaneous transmission and reception of data on each carrier frequency, and has been shown to achieve full duplex data rates1 in excess of 1 Gb/s in a 28 MHz channel allocation2 in the microwave bands.

Addressing Test Challenges for new LTE-Advanced Standard

While LTE-Advanced brings the promise of higher data rates, designing devices for use in LTE-A offer new test challenges. This paper provides an overview of LTE MIMO and carrier aggregation technologies and describes different methodologies for testing these new capabilities including multi-antenna techniques, MIMO spatial multiplexing, beam steering, as well as the different carrier aggregation modes.

A Foundation in Thin Film Circuit Manufacturing

Metrigraphics' thin film process is a fundamental technology uniquely suited to the task of making miniature circuits with extremely small and uniform features that have extremely consistent electrical performance throughout. The process also tends to be much faster and less wasteful than subtractive manufacturing methods like chemical etching. That's because only the conductive material needed to define the circuit geometry is being deposited, which results in in a manufacturing process that is more efficient and less wasteful.

Modern Vector Network Analyzer Test Solutions Improve On-Wafer Measurement Efficiency

Semiconductor manufacturing test engineers face challenges related to broadband millimeter wave (MMW) on-wafer testing. Achieving accurate, stable measurements, typically performed using VNAs, over extended time periods is a challenge for foundries and fab-less semiconductor companies that require extensive on-wafer devices testing. This paper examines the impact of calibration downtime during on-wafer testing and recent advances enabling longer time periods between calibrations.

Design of Class F Power Amplifiers Using Cree GaN HEMTs and Microwave Office Software to Optimize Gain, Efficiency, and Stability

This white paper discusses the design of power amplifiers employing Cree GaN HEMTs and NI AWR Design Environment / Microwave Office circuit design software to maximize power-added efficiency (PAE) by optimizing source and load pull at both fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The load-pull scripts within Microwave Office�  are used to find the optimum trade-offs in power gain, efficiency, and stability. The article describes the basis of Class F PA and inverse Class F design F, as well as a new approach called continuous Class F, which enables greater bandwidths to be realized. Several practical design examples are given, including the inspection of voltage and current waveforms for both packaged and bare die transistors in the 10 to 25 watt power range for frequencies up to 2.5 GHz. In addition, the ways in which the Microwave Office load pull wizard can be used to investigate fundamental and harmonic impedances both at the input and output of transistors are discussed.

OpenRF - A Better Alternative For An Open Architecture to Support EW, EA and SIGINT Applications

Innovation that's Open - Introducing OpenRFM. Meeting new government interoperability and affordability requirements in Electronic Warfare and Signals Intelligence, requires innovative approaches in advanced RF/Microwave and digital signal processing. OpenRFM is the first RF/Microwave open system approach that leverages best available commercial-item technology to deliver sophisticated, interoperable sensor processing subsystems to dominate the electromagnetic spectrum. OpenRFM is the better alternative for affordable RF subsystems for our war fighters and allies alike.

Four Signal-Identification Techniques to Characterize Complex Systems & Environments

For decades, spectrum analyzers have been used to develop and characterize radar and electronic (EW) warfare systems. However, traditional swept measurements are rapidly becoming insufficient because most modern radar systems are adaptive. Learn about methods for monitoring EW scenarios, identifying unwanted events in the transmitted waveform, and accurately measuring found signals.� 

Integrated GaN Amplifiers: An Optimized Solution for Mid-Level Broadband RF Power

A generation ago, easy-to-use GaAs HBT based RF Gain Blocks changed the way RF engineers designed small signal amplifiers. That same evolution is now arriving in GaN technology with simple broadband solutions to medium power requirements in the 5 to 25 Watt range. This power range appears in a wide array of customer requirements, from output stages in broadband land-mobile and military handheld radios, small cell linear finals, to drivers in larger military, EW, and infrastructure power amplifiers. Entering the realm of power amplifiers though obviously brings new requirements and challenges, among them cost, size, power efficiency, and difficult thermal limitations that drive their electrical and package design. This paper will review conventional solutions, explore the tradeoffs between discrete and monolithic MMICs, and highlight the unique benefits of this new hybrid SMT solution.

A Simple Approach to Signal Via Stubs for Coaxial PCB Connector Launches

When designing printed circuit boards launches for coaxial test connectors, there are a number of aspects to consider in order to get the clearest picture of the intended device under test. Learn a relatively simple approach to modeling back-drilled vias and a rough "rule of thumb" to modeling them without electrical modeling tools.

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