White Papers

CoMPA™: An Innovation in Satellite Antenna Technology

Starling’s patented CoMPA™ (Coherent Multi Panel Antenna) technology is based on coherently splitting (or combining) a flat-panel, large antenna array into multiple plates. This mechanical splitting enables achievement of a very low-profile, high-gain antenna, with equivalent performance to that of much higher profile antenna. Starling antennas are Kuband-based and provide both receipt and transmission of heavy data files, voice, and video.
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Marki Microwave

T3 Mixer Primer: A Mixer for the 21st Century

Intermodulation distortion (IMD) suppression is a critical issue in modern military and commercial RF/microwave systems. Pressed by the demands imposed by distortion‐sensitive digital modulation formats, modern systems routinely specify linearity requirements that are impossible to attain using conventional approaches. To meet these new challenges, Marki Microwave has introduced the Two‐Tone‐Terminator (T3) mixer family. The T3 mixer is the most sophisticated mixer circuit on the market today and offers unparalleled performance when compared to all other mixer technologies. This Primer describes the key operating principles of the T3 mixer and compares the performance against traditional double balanced mixers.

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Solutions for Sharing IP-Protected Nonlinear Behavioral Models with System Integrators


RF system design is a notoriously complex and challenging endeavor, made even more so by today’s stringent time-to-market requirements. Meeting these requirements places increasing pressure on system integrators to speed the system-design process wherever possible. One viable option for addressing these concerns lies in the ability to evaluate real circuit-level designs from design houses/component vendors within the system context, early in the design process and prior to the availability of a physical hardware prototype.

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Reconfigurable And Cost-Effective FET Mixer

This paper describes a reconfigurable resistive passive FET mixer co-designed with a reconfigurable VCO (voltage controlled oscillator) that acts as a LO (local oscillator), can operate with low noise figure, and high dynamic range without the need of external BALUN (balance-to-unbalance) network. The typical measured input intercept points (IIP3) and conversion loss is 38dBm and 8.5dB with the LO power typically 15dBm for the frequency bands (RF: 700-2300MHz, LO: 650-2100MHz, IF: 50-200MHz).
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The Class M™ Linearization System and Its Application

An excellent technique for on channel linearization enhancement is feedback of the incident signal from output to input, provided sufficient loop gain and phase margin exist within the system. Class M™ is an example of a pulse shaping system for complex envelope modulation control that employs real time feedback at radio frequency to maintain high levels of distortion correction and loop stability.
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Wireless and Stimulus: A Perfect Match

When it comes to securing broadband stimulus funds, network providers are currently faced with some fairly uncertain circumstances. Challenged with navigating through the uncertain fund allocation process, operators continue to struggle with determining how to write a convincing and winning application and choosing the right solution, technology and vendor to best suit their specific needs.
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Generating X-parameters from Circuit-level Designs

X-parameters represent a new category of nonlinear network parameters for high-frequency design and are used for characterizing the amplitudes and relative phase of harmonics generated by the nonlinear behavior of components. Developed and introduced by Agilent Technologies, X-parameters are applicable to both large-signal and small-signal conditions, and for linear and nonlinear components. They correctly characterize impedance mismatches and frequency mixing behavior to allow accurate simulation of cascaded nonlinear X-parameter blocks (e.g., amplifiers and mixers), in wireless design. X-parameters play a key role in the development of active devices like the power amplifier (PA) and mixers—critical components in today’s wireless designs.
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