Modeling and Characterization of RF and Microwave Power FETs
P.H. Aaen, J.A. Plá and J. Wood
377 pages; $99 • Cambridge University Press
This book is about the modeling of RF power transistors, in particular field effect transistors or FETs. Characterization and measurement techniques, analysis and synthesis methods are described, as well as the model implementation in the simulator and validation techniques that are needed to produce a transistor model that can be used with confidence by the circuit designer.
The book starts by reviewing some of the historical developments in both applications and device technology that have resulted in transistor devices capable of delivering tens to hundred of watts at RF and microwave frequencies. The basics of FET operation are also reviewed, although the detailed physical principles are left to semiconductor device texts. Accurate measurements form the foundation of the model. Descriptions of how calibration and fixturing are used to ensure that repeatable and accurate measurements of the high power amplifier transistor are offered. The analysis and construction of the compact model are then described. The transistor is partitioned into passive and active components and the modeling of these elements is addressed in detail. The active transistor can then be accessed by de-embedding the package elements. A large-signal model of the FET can be constructed from DC and RF measurements. A number of techniques for measuring the static and dynamic thermal properties are described. Considerations on how the model can be constructed in the circuit simulator are given, using function approximations or data fitting techniques and how the model can be verified to work correctly. The model predictions are then compared with high power RF measurements, such as load-pull and large-signal network analyzers to validate the model accuracy and provide the circuit designers with confidence in its use.
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Designing Bipolar Transistor Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits
Allen A. Sweet
334 pages; $119, £66 • Artech House
This practical resource offers engineers an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of bipolar transistor RFIC design. Unlike most books on the market that focus on GaAs MESFET or silicon CMOS process technology, this unique volume is dedicated exclusively to RFIC designs based on bipolar technology. Until now, critical GaAs HBT and SiGe HBT technologies have been largely neglected in reference books. This book fills this gap, providing a detailed treatment of this increasingly important topic. It is dedicated to equipping the circuit designer with all the necessary tools to be successful at RF/microwave RFIC designs, using HBT bipolar devices. Applications for RFICs, along with typical chip architectures for fulfilling the needs of these applications, are discussed in Chapters 2 and 3. Both InGaP/GaAs HBT and SiGe HBT technologies are presented in Chapters 4 and 5, in order to provide the process knowledge the designer needs to achieve their goals. Several design techniques for passive circuits are presented in Chapter 6. Amplifier design concepts are discussed, including specific approaches to the design of low-noise amplifiers (LNA), power amplifiers (PA) and wideband gain blocks, in Chapters 7 to 10. Following the amplifier design material, Chapter 11 covers mixer design and Chapter 12 concentrates on frequency multiplier design. The design of VCOs is covered in Chapter 13. Throughout Chapter 13, numerous VCO design examples are presented. Phase noise concepts are discussed in detail and examples of low-phase-noise designs are given. All designs are simulated using the Agilent Advanced Design System (ADS®) simulation tool set. The final two Chapters, 14 and 15, disclose, in a general way, the considerations that the designer must keep in mind when approaching the circuit layout, as well as economic considerations and how they affect many design decisions.
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