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The Rebirth of HF

HF stands for “high frequency” and is usually used to refer to signals with frequencies in the range of 3 MHz to 30 MHz, although in many cases the practical definition of HF has be extended down to frequencies as low as 1.5 MHz.


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TRL Calibration of a VNA

Thru-Reflect-Line calibration has a number of advantages over the SOLT method often used in VNA calibration. For SOLT calibration, the standards must be accurately characterized. The opens and shorts might be characterized by electromagnetic simulation of the physical design or have associated one-port “data-base” files obtained by highly precise measurement.


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NewSpace Terminal Testing Challenges and Considerations

Today’s satellite communication systems combine features from legacy cellular networks and emerging wireless technologies. New constellations are under development that attempt to provide ubiquitous mobility and internet networks via satellites, ground stations and user terminals (Figure 1). Each link in the supply chain presents unique challenges for R&D, production and deployment for both the components and system development.


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Extending the Performance and Frequency Envelope for QFN Packaging Technology

“High-performance, millimeter-wave MMIC products” and “cost-effective surface mount lead-frame-based packaging” typically don’t come up in the same conversation, and for good reason. Just two or three years ago, it was difficult to conceive of operating at frequencies above 20 GHz without considering an expensive, open cavity, HTCC package or resorting to more bespoke chip and wire assemblies.


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Verifying RF Device Performance With a Blocking Test

The increasing density of devices, machines, systems and vehicles using wireless connectivity solutions can pose a great challenge for a new Wi-Fi module due to the presence of interfering signals. A wireless receiver’s ability to receive a wanted signal in the presence of an interfering signal is described by blocking characteristics.


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