Whitepapers

Managing Phase Noise in Microwave Chains

This work encompases a set of phase noise and some other rules for microwave oscillator design in microwave receiving and transmitting chains intended for SDR radio systems. Engineering shown in this work, comes from error vector magnitude achievable in a system. A 10 dB difference between demanded EVM and CINR is a reserve needed for compensating of various errors, wich are inevitable caused by the elements in the frequency conversion chain. Using this design process, post-layout simulations show a phase noise of -110 dBc/Hz at the offset of 100 kHz.
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Data Communication Path in HVAC Systems Utilizing Wireless ZigBee Modules

The ZigBee 2.4 GHz Radios communicate in P2P, P2MP and mesh networks utilizing low power radio transmissions which are reliable in existing RF environments. Buildings, constructed of metal, brick and concrete, can offer challenges which ZigBee radios can overcome by navigation through mesh networks as well as ‘star’ and ‘cluster-tree’ networks.
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Seven best practices to prevent damage to your power meters and sensors

Agilent gives you a wide selection of power meters and sensors for practically all your application needs – wireless communications, radar pulse measurements, components testing and more. We want to help you make better measurements—with the recommended equipment in less time, so we’ve lined up an array of resources in the form of application notes, technical notes and demo guides just for you.
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Application Guide to RF Coaxial Connectors and Cables

There is a wide variety of coaxial connectors and cables available for use in the RF and Microwave spectrum. While often not much thought is given to these essential components, a misstep here can result in undesirable system degradation. Given that typical RF systems are comprised of any number of items, e.g. RF generators, amplifiers, attenuators, power meters, couplers, antennas, etc., it is not uncommon that a great deal of thought is given to these “high end” devices while mundane items such as connectors and cables are often treated as an “afterthought”. Here's a quick guied to the various types available and information every test engineer should have available.
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Budgeting Harmonics for ZigBee Front End Modules

This document details how to specify harmonics for a ZigBee FEM. It reviews the requirements from the different regulatory standards, analyzes through simulation harmonics content of offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) spread spectrum modulation and evaluates the effects of the measurement bandwidth and detector on the harmonics level of both sine and ZigBee waveforms. Finally, measurement data is provided to illustrate the simulations results.
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Simulation of Multipath Fading Effects in Mobile Radio Systems

RF signals transmitted via wireless mobile channels suffer from several effects like smallscale fading and signal dispersion and distortion. This paper reviews these effects and simulates Rayleigh and Rician multipath fading channels with a comparison between them in terms of the effect of RF signal random fluctuations, average received signal level, outage probability, and effect of Doppler shift. In addition to that, signal dispersion occurring to pulses transmitted through these types of channels has also been discussed and simulated.
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Analysis and Design of the Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antennas for TM0n0 Operating Mode

The analysis of rectangular microstrip patch antenna (RMPA) operating on the TM0n0 modes is presented. The characteristic parameters such as dielectric substrate, ground plane aspect ratio, input impedance as a function of the feed point position and the frequency effects have been theoretically investigated for these modes. The Finite Element Method and MATLAB model have been used for optimize and design RMPA operating at TM010 mode. The antenna has been carry out on the FR4 substrate and the characteristics has been measured with Vector Network Analyzer.
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Tag Designs and Techniques Used in HF RFID Item Level Tracking

The choice and placement of a RFID tag on a product requires an investigation to determine optimal performance. The current technology of HF tags is focused on the mass production of low cost paper thin tags that have maximized read range performance perpendicular to the broad plane of the tag. Incorporating both these tag designs for use within the RFID architecture allows for flexibility of product placement and orientation while maintaining optimum performance.
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Problem of Physical Non-realizable Equivalent Current Amplitude Distributions in Waveguide Antenna Feeding Slots

In this paper the Full-Wave design method of the non-resonant waveguide multislots antenna is presented. The internal mutual couplings between adjacent radiating slots are considered in the described method. The problem of the physical nonrealizability of some equivalent currents amplitude distributions feeding slots, caused by the internal mutual couplings between slots is also presented. Some corrective solutions which allow solving mentioned problem are proposed. In order to confirm the usefulness of the presented solutions the obtained results are compared to their equivalents reached in computer simulations with the use of CST Microwave Studio.
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