White Papers

5G Evolution - on the Path to 6G - From a Service, Air Interface and Network Perspective

5G deployments have only recently started, and releases beyond R15 will continue to tap into the tremendous potential of 5G. However, as a new generation of cellular technology typically appears every 8-10 years, 6G can be expected around 2030.

Advantages of Multi-channel Modular Arbitrary Waveform Generators

Arbitrary waveform generators or AWG’s come close to being universal signals sources. They are digitally based devices capable of generating any waveform, within published limits of bandwidth, memory length, accuracy, and output level. Sixteen bits of amplitude resolution are available with bandwidths from 70 to 600 MHz and output levels as high as 24 Vpp.

Tolerance and Size Analysis for mmWave Filter Manufacturing

In this paper we discuss a commonly asked question, “Why not just integrate a filter in the board stack?” Besides overall filter performance concerns, our answer to this comes in two parts: First there are manufacturing tolerances to consider, and second there is size.

Improve 5G Testing with Reliable Microwave/RF Cable Assemblies

The 5G test industry requires improved reliability of cable assemblies to help improve test outcomes. A significant portion of a test system’s stability and repeatability is determined by the precise performance of microwave/RF cable assemblies. Engineers should understand how cable assemblies affect the test system to maximize and optimize overall performance.

Antenna Array Testing - Conducted and Over the Air: The Way to 5G

5G networks will need to offer more capacity and flexibility while lowering the operational expenses of the system. Two new technologies can simultaneously address both the increase in capacity and the increase in energy efficiency: Virtualization & Massive MIMO. The white paper provides an overview of test solutions addressing current and future requirements for antenna verification including both conducted and over-the-air (OTA) test methods, which result from applying Massive MIMO antenna technology.

Phased Array Antenna Patterns—Part 2

This is the second article of our three-part series on phased array antenna patterns. In Part 1, we introduced the phased array steering concept and looked at the influencers on array gain. In Part 2, we’ll discuss grating lobes and beam squint. Grating lobes can be hard to visualize, so we’ll draw on their similarity with signal aliasing in digital converters, then use that to think of a grating lobe as a spatial alias.

Screening Effectiveness and Transfer Impedance of (N)EMP Protection Components in the Installed Condition

While the world’s militaries increasingly rely upon seamless wireless communication networks for multi-domain battlefield readiness, protecting these mission critical networks from disruption and catastrophic failure becomes paramount.

Combining MMIC Reflectionless Filters to Create Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Bandpass Filters

Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radio is defined as any RF technology utilizing a bandwidth of greater than ¼ the center frequency or a bandwidth greater than 500 MHz [1] [2]. While UWB has been a known technology since the end of the 19th century, restrictions on transmission to prevent interference with narrow-band, continuous wave signals have limited its applications to defense and relatively few specially licensed operators [1].

COTS Software Defined Radio for 5G Development

The latest SDR modules offer SoC solutions with integrated I/O, ARM processors and FPGAs. Combining these attributes with superior signal integrity, phase-coherent sampling and multi-channel transceivers a COTS SDR system is an ideal choice for a 5G development platform. This article will familiarize the user with SDR using a multi-purpose COTS platform to reduce the time to market.

Accuracy – Space – Time: Navigating the Challenges of Testing Commercial Aircraft Radomes to RTCA-DO-213A Standards

Exploring the latest RTCA standards for nose mounted aircraft radome and how to meet them using a test method which is faster, more compact and more accurate than ever before. 
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