White Papers

TRL Calibration of a VNA

Thru-Reflect-Line calibration has a number of advantages over the SOLT method often used in VNA calibration. For SOLT calibration, the standards must be accurately characterized. The opens and shorts might be characterized by electromagnetic simulation of the physical design or have associated one-port “data-base” files obtained by highly precise measurement.

NewSpace Terminal Testing Challenges and Considerations

Today’s satellite communication systems combine features from legacy cellular networks and emerging wireless technologies. New constellations are under development that attempt to provide ubiquitous mobility and internet networks via satellites, ground stations and user terminals (Figure 1). Each link in the supply chain presents unique challenges for R&D, production and deployment for both the components and system development.

Putting Crystal Oscillators in Their Rightful Place

The paper reviews the qualities of high-performance crystal oscillators that make them the preferred solution over MEMS oscillators in applications where high-reliability under extreme conditions is not an option. 

An Interview with Analog Devices Discussing RF Electronics for Phased Array Applications

With the continued advancement of ICs for the wireless industry, semiconductor companies once known only as component providers are now able to offer complete system solutions. This month we interview Analog Devices, a company unique in the industry, combining high-speed data converters with an extensive RF, microwave, and power portfolio.

Fundamentals of Spectrum Analysis

The Rohde & Schwarz fundamentals are intended to familiarize the uninitiated reader with the field of spectrum analysis. To understand complex measuring instruments it is useful to know the theoretical background of spectrum analysis.

Extending the Performance and Frequency Envelope for QFN Packaging Technology

“High-performance, millimeter-wave MMIC products” and “cost-effective surface mount lead-frame-based packaging” typically don’t come up in the same conversation, and for good reason. Just two or three years ago, it was difficult to conceive of operating at frequencies above 20 GHz without considering an expensive, open cavity, HTCC package or resorting to more bespoke chip and wire assemblies.

Verifying RF Device Performance With a Blocking Test

The increasing density of devices, machines, systems and vehicles using wireless connectivity solutions can pose a great challenge for a new Wi-Fi module due to the presence of interfering signals. A wireless receiver’s ability to receive a wanted signal in the presence of an interfering signal is described by blocking characteristics.
Custom MMIC

4 Ways to Make Component Characterization More Efficient

Learn about four network analyzer capabilities that make next-generation testing significantly more efficient in our eBook. Conduct time domain analysis, spectrum analysis, and more with a single connection to a network analyzer.

An Introduction to Direction Finding Methodologies

In the radio-frequency world, the term "direction finding" (DF) refers to the use of specialized instruments, antennas, and methodologies to determine the physical or geographical location of an emitter; that is, a source of radio-frequency energy.

Antenna Array Testing - Conducted and Over the Air: The Way to 5G

This white paper provides an overview of test solutions addressing current and future requirements for antenna verification including both conducted and over-the-air test methods, which result from applying Massive MIMO antenna technology.
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