White Papers

Smiths Interconnect

Practical Considerations in the Design and Development of High Frequency Power Splitters

Recent trends and developments, such as 5G deployment, massive MIMO and beamforming, automotive radar, and space applications, are shaping the field of RF communications of the 21st century, particularly in the context of millimeter waves. In this article, the concept of a conventional surface mount planar Wilkinson power splitter is revisited and examined at frequencies above 20 GHz. 


Wilkinson Power Dividers and Feed Networks: A Brief Overview

Wilkinson Power Divider’s are widely used in many RF and microwave communication systems, including those with multiple channels or complex feed networks. Learn more about how Wilkinson Power Dividers work and how they play a crucial role in overall device performance.


Smart Microwave Antennas are a Step Closer with Advanced Dual Beamforming DAC

A technical collaboration between Teledyne e2v, France, and Fraunhofer IIS, Germany, recently evaluated the performance of a four-channel digitally steered 2.4 GHz planar antenna system. In this, a pair of state-of-the-art, gigahertz capable, digitalto-analog converters (EV12DD700) featuring a slew of novel, on-chip digital beamforming controls delivered digital beam steering control. The aim - to gain further validation of Teledyne e2V’s advance towards microwave RF softwarization.

Rohde and Schwarz

An Overview of Space Electronic Warfare

This paper provides an in-depth exploration of space EW - from the space domain ecosystem to important EW technologies. Learn about the five Ds of offensive space EW, jamming mitigation techniques and much more. Additionally, discover a range of cutting-edge tools that can be employed for effective EW activities in space.


Emerging Radar and Electronic Warfare (EW) Challenges: Developing Test Strategies

Our comprehensive approach integrates advanced tools and software with high-performance instruments to give you the flexibility, speed, and cost-efficiency you need to stay ahead of the competition. With our cutting-edge test solutions, you can rest assured that your military systems are always up to date and ready for battle.


Transient EM/Circuit Co-Simulation in XFdtd®: A Closer Look at TVS Diodes for ESD Protection

TVS diodes help protect electronic circuits from surge voltages associated with an ESD event.  This paper demonstrates XFdtd’s transient EM/circuit co-simulation capability, an approach that embeds a transient nonlinear circuit solver in the full-wave simulation so that all electromagnetic phenomena are accounted for in a single time-domain simulation.
Custom Interconnects

Fuzz Button Technology Providing Internconnect Solutions for Quantum Computing Systems

Quantum computing technology has the potential to trigger a new industrial revolution, thanks to its exponentially powerful computation capabilities.  The development of large-scale quantum computers requires critical components for high-frequency signal transmission, namely interconnects and interposers.

Overcoming Challenges in RCS Measurements using a High Order Basis Function Method of Moments Technique

Characterizing Radar Cross Section (RCS) is no easy task. Most ranges use low back-scattering pylons that require a low RCS target to hide the top edge of the pylon to measure the effect of the support. This article explores the idea of using a numerical technique as an effective alternative. 

Overcoming Size Limitations - the RF Performance Impace of Segmentation and Assembly on 3D Printed Luneburg Lenses

Segmentation is a powerful tool in extending the capabilities of otherwise workpiece size or workspace limited Additive Manufacturing technologies, and can enable the fabrication of complex dielectric structures. This is especially critical for highly intricate dielectric structures, such as metastructures, and Luneburg/GRIN RF lenses greater than 4.5” in diameter. 

5G NR Challenges & Trends in RFFE Design

The proposed capability enhancements from 4G long-term evolution (LTE) to 5G new radio (5G NR) were a massive leap designed to boost mobile telecommunications applications and enable many more. Aside from significantly boosting all major performance metrics, the 4G to 5G transition also heralds a more flexible and capable radio architecture with additional millimeter-wave frequency spectrum on top of legacy 4G LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) and new sub-6 GHz frequency bands.