White Papers


Millimeter Wave Design: Optimizing Performance in RF Compression Mount Connectors

In millimeter wave designs, compression mount connectors can be used to avoid problems commonly associated with solder variations. However, when using compression mount connectors, the potential impact of pin compression and/or misalignment on electrical performance at high frequencies should be considered. Using modeled and measured data, this white paper investigates how misalignment and pin compression could impact a real-world design. It also explains how to detect and avoid issues in order to optimize performance and complete a successful design.  

Multi-Tone Testing, Theory, and Practice

Multi-tone testing has many benefits. While the multi-tone method was initially implemented to increase the speed of IEC 61000-4-3 radiated immunity testing, it has been found that this method also improves equipment efficiency, offers greater flexibility to truly test the equipment (EUT) under real-world threat conditions, and can be fully compliant to standards. 
Saint Gobain

SHEERGARD® Radome Solutions for 5G mmWave

SHEERGARD® optimizes 5G radomes by being band agnostic; no tuning required and multiple antennas concealed in a single radome. Lightweight material ensures limited structural support needed, with low transmission loss at wide scan angles. Finally, hydrophobicity provides long-term UV and weather resistance, reduces signal loss and prevents ice/ snow build-up.
Rohde and Schwarz

Understanding EMI Precompliance Testing

The expansion of electronic and radio frequency technology into almost every aspect of daily life has greatly increased the importance of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing. This educational note discusses the fundamentals of EMC precompliance testing: what precompliance is, why precompliance is important, and how precompliance testing is performed.
Mini Circuits

Extending Power and Dynamic Range in E-Band Backhaul Test Sets

According to Ericsson’s 2022 Mobility Report, global mobile data traffic is expected to grow by a factor of 4 to 325 Exabytes total per month or 46 GB per smartphone on average by 2028, excluding Fixed Wireless Access usage. 

Hybrid Beamforming Transmit Calibration with SFDR Optimization

Phased array calibration efforts are generally focused on optimizing the fundamental signal of interest. This article presents a method to further improve spurious performance once the phase calibration for the desired signal is known. Using this method, we will evaluate transmit spurious signals on a 32-element hybrid beamforming system comprised of four 8-element subarrays. 
Richardson RFPD

Fixed Wireless Access for Unlicensed 60 GHz with Perspectus Modules

As consumer demand for data bandwidth grows worldwide, service providers face difficult and expensive challenges to expand capacity and coverage. Multi-gigabit Fixed Wireless Access systems offer a solution for overcoming many of these service-provisioning challenges.

How to Build Successful Switching Systems for Mission-Critical Test Applications

Today’s test systems are often developed in silos – specific test systems designed for the specific products or processes needed today – without forethought toward future testing needs. However, shifts in demand require today’s products to scale in production or grow in functionality. 
Rohde and Schwarz

An Introduction to Passive Radar Systems

This whitepaper explores the innovative concept of passive radar and its many advantages. We cover its operating principles, basics of bistatic radars and the concept of EoOs. We also evaluate the role of satellite illumination and forward scattering in passive radar and highlight real-world examples of operational passive radar systems. 

Rohde and Schwarz

Application Note: The Cold Source Technique for Noise Figure Measurements

This application note describes the cold source technique as it is implemented on the R&S®ZNA vector network analyzer.