Three important channel modeling components, spatial consistency, human blockage, and outdoor-to-indoor (O2I) penetration loss, are implemented in NYUSIM 2.0. Each modeling component will be introduced as follows.
- Spatial Consistency: Spatial consistency indicates continuous and realistic channel evolution along the user terminal (UT) trajectory in a local area. NYUSIM with spatial consistency simulates spatially correlated channel impulse responses when a UT moves in a local area or multiple UTs are closely spaced. To realize spatial consistency, spatially correlated large scale parameters such as shadow fading, line-of-sight (LOS)/non-LOS (NLOS) condition are generated, and time-variant small-scale parameters such as angles, power, delay, phase of each MPC are generated. Speciﬁcally, a geometry-based approach using multiple reﬂection surfaces is implemented to update spatially correlated and time-variant angular information.
- Human Blockage Shadowing Loss: NYUSIM 2.0 can simulate human blockage shadowing loss due to a person near the mobile phone (UT) who may block the transmission link. A human blockage event usually causes a temporal shadowing loss, which may last about several hundreds of milliseconds. A typical blockage event can be divided into four stages, unshadowed, decay, shadowed, rising. A four-state Markov model corresponding to four stages was proposed to characterize blockage events. Such four-state Markov model is implemented to simulate human blockage events for both omnidirectional and directional channels generated from NYUSIM.
- O2I Penetration Loss: NYUSIM 2.0 can simulate the channel responses with building penetration loss for the UTs inside the building. O2I penetration loss becomes more prominent at mmWave frequencies as shown in measurements. Many modern buildings are constructed by concrete and have infrared reﬂecting (IRR) glass, which induce a large penetration loss when a mmWave signal is transmitted from outdoor to indoor or vice versa.