This article discussed the realization of a LabVIEW-based, computer-controlled K-Band synthesizer using an MZM OEO system. Suppression of the inter-modal oscillation of long fiber-optic delay lines reduces the close-in phase noise.55 The measured phase noise is around −130 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset over all of K-Band, from 16 to 24 GHz. The design of a reduced cost and smaller OEO synthesizer using a PhC-PM device, Sagnac loop PM-IM convertor64-65 and a multi-mode, multi-section semiconductor laser58 will be presented in Part 2 of this article.66

Figure 11

Figure 11 Frequency sequence spelling DREXEL, demonstrating the broadband frequency hopping capability of the OEO synthesizer.


  1. R. Adler, “A Study of Locking Phenomena In Oscillators,” Proceedings of the IRE 34, No. 6, 1946, pp. 351–357.
  2. L. J. Paciorek, “Injection Locking of Oscillators,” Proceedings of the IEEE 53, No. 11, 1965, pp. 1723–1727.
  3. A. Blanchard, “Phase Locked Loops: Application to Coherent Receiver Design,” Wiley, New York, 1976.
  4. U. L. Rohde, “Digital PLL Frequency Synthesizers: Theory and Design,” Prentice Hall, New York, 1983.
  5. U. L. Rohde, “Microwave and Wireless Synthesizers: Theory and Design,” Wiley, New York, 1997.
  6. A. S. Daryoush and P. R. Herczfeld, “Indirect Optical Injection-Locking of Multiple X-Band Oscillators,” Electronics Lett., Vol. 22, No. 3, 1986, pp. 133–134.
  7. A. S. Daryoush, “Optical Synchronization of Millimeter-Wave Oscillators for Distributed Millimeter-wave Systems,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 38, No. 5, May 1990, pp. 1371–1373.
  8. A. S. Daryoush, P. R. Herczfeld, P. Wahi and Z. Turski, “Comparison of Indirect Optical Injection Locking Techniques of Multiple X-Band Oscillators,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 34, No. 12, December 1986, pp. 1363–1370.
  9. P. R. Herczfeld, A. S. Daryoush, A. Rosen, A. K. Sharma and V. M. Contarino, “Indirect Subharmonic Optical Injection Locking of a Millimeter Wave IMPATT Oscillator,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 34, No. 12, December 1986, pp. 1371–1376.
  10. A. Daryoush, P. Herczfeld, V. Contarino, A. Rosen, Z. Turski and P. Wahi, “Optical Beam Control of Millimeter Wave Phased Array Antennas For Communications,” 16th European Microwave Conference, 1986, pp. 864–869.
  11. E. C. Niehenke and P. Herczfeld, “An Optical Link for W-Band Transmit/Receive Applications,”1997 IEEE International Microwave Symposium Digest, Vol. 1, pp. 35–38.
  12. S. Lipsky and A. S. Daryoush, “Fiber Optic Methods for Injection-Locked Oscillators,” Microwave Journal, Vol. 35, No. 1, January 1992, pp. 80−88.
  13. X. Zhou, A. S. Daryoush, “An Injection Locked Push-Pull Oscillator at Ku-Band,” IEEE Microwave & Guided Wave Lett., Vol. 3. No. 8, 1993, pp. 244–246.
  14. A. S. Daryoush, K. Kamogawa, T. Tokumitsu and H. Ogawa, “Phase Noise Characteristics of MMIC Based ILO for Ka-Band Applications,” The Journal of Franklin Institute, Special Issue on Benjamin Franklin Symposium, Vol. 338, No. 1, January 1999, pp. 33–42.
  15. P. R. Herczfeld, A. Paolella, A. S. Daryoush, W. Jemison and A. Rosen, “Optical Control of MMIC-Based T/R Modules,” Microwave Journal, Vol. 31, No. 5, May 1988, pp. 309–322.
  16. X. Zhang and A. S. Daryoush, “Full 360o Phase Shifting of Injection Locked Oscillators,” IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1993, pp. 14–16.
  17. X. Zhou, X. Zhang and A. S. Daryoush, “A New Approach for a Phase Controlled Self-Oscillating Mixer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., Vol. 45, No. 2, February 1997, pp. 19–204.
  18. A. Daryoush, P. Herczfeld, V. Contarino, A. Rosen and Z. Turski, “Optical Beam Control of mm-Wave Phased Array Antennas for Communications,” Microwave Journal, Vol. 30, 1986, p. 97.
  19. X. Zhang, X. Zhou, B. Aliener and A. S. Daryoush, “A Study of Subharmonic Injection Locking Local Oscillators,” IEEE Microwave & Guided Wave Lett., Vol. 2, No. 3, 1992, pp. 97–99.
  20. X. Zhang, X. Zhou and A. S. Daryoush, “A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Noise Behavior of Subharmonically Injection Locked Local Oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory & Tech., Vol. 40, No. 5, 1992, pp. 895–902.
  21. H. P. Moyer and A. S. Daryoush, “A Unified Analytical Model and Experimental Validations of Injection-Locking Processes,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory & Tech, Vol. 48, No. 4, 2000, pp. 493–499.
  22. B. Razavi, “A Study of Injection Locking and Pulling in Oscillators,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 39, No. 9, September 2004, pp. 1415–1424.
  23. A. Mirzaei, M. E. Heidari and A. A. Abidi, “Analysis of Oscillators Locked by Large Injection Signals: Generalized Adler’s Equation and Geometrical Interpretation,” IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference 2006, pp. 737–740.
  24. A. S. Daryoush, D. Sturzbecher and X. Zhang, “Sub-Harmonically Injection Locked Oscillators,” U.S. Patent 5302918, April 12, 1994.
  25. D. J. Sturzebecher, X. Zhou, X. Zhang and A. S. Daryoush, “Optically Controlled Oscillators for Millimeter-Wave Phased Array Antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 41, No. 6/7, 1993, pp. 998–1004.
  26. X. Zhou and A. S. Daryoush, “An Efficient Self-Oscillating Mixer for Communications,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory & Tech., Vol. 42, No. 10, 1994, pp. 1858–1862.
  27. M. R. Tofighi and A. S. Daryoush, “A 2.5 GHz InGaP/GaAs Differential Cross-Coupled Self-Oscillating Mixer (SOM) IC,” IEEE Microwave & Wireless Components Lett., Vol. 15, No. 4, 2005, pp. 211–213.
  28. A. K. Poddar and U. L. Rohde, “Metamaterial Resonator Based Device,” U.S. Patent 9608564B2, March 28, 2017.
  29. R. T. Logan, “Widely Tunable Oscillator Stabilization Using Analog Fiber Optic Delay Line,” U.S. Patent 5204640, April 20, 1993.
  30. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic Microwave Oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., B 13, 1996, pp. 1725–1735.
  31. A. S. Daryoush, A. K. Poddar, T. Sun and U. L. Rohde, “Optoelectronic Oscillators: Recent and Emerging Trends,” Microwave Journal, October 2018, pp. 58–76.
  32. S. Fedderwitz, A. Stohr, S. Babiel, V. Rymanov and D. Jager, “Opto-Electronic Dual-Loop 50 GHz Oscillator With Wide Tunability and Low Phase Noise,” Proc. of 2010 IEEE Microwave Photonics, pp. 224–226.
  33. M. Kaba et al., “Improving Thermal Stability of Opto-Electronic Oscillators,” IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 7, No. 4, August 2006, pp. 38–47.
  34. A. S. Daryoush, H. W. Li, M. Kaba, G. Bouwmans, D. Decoster, J. Chazelas and F. Deborgies, “Passively Temperature Stable Opto-electronic Oscillators Employing Photonic Crystal Fibers?,” Proc. of the European Microwave Association, Vol. 3, No. 3, September 2007, pp. 201–209.
  35. L. Zhang, V. Madhavan, R. Patel, A. K. Poddar, U. L. Rohde and A. S. Daryoush, “Ultra Low FM Noise In Passively Temperature Compensated Microwave Opto-Electronic Oscillators,” Proc. IEEE International Microwave and RF Conference, December 2013.
  36. M. Aigle et al., “A Systematic Way to YIG-Filter-Design,” 37th European Microwave Conference, 2007.
  37. D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Tunable, Ultra-Low Phase Noise YIG-Based Opto-Electronic Oscillator,” 2003 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, Vol. 3, pp. 2185–2187.
  38. J. C. Papp and Y. Y. Koyano, “An 8-18 GHz YIG-Tuned FET Oscillator,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 28, July 1980, pp. 762–767.
  39. Y. Jiang et al., “A Selectable Multiband Bandpass Microwave Photonic Filter,” IEEE Photonics Journal, Vol. 5, No. 3, June 2013, p. 3.
  40. 40. Mora et al., “Photonic Microwave Tunable Single-Bandpass Filter Based on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” J. Lightwave Tech., Vol. 24, No. 7, July 2006.
  41. Y. Jiang et al., “A Selectable Multiband Bandpass Microwave Photonic Filter,” IEEE Photonics Journal, Vol. 5, No. 3, June 2013, pp. 5500509–5500509.
  42. J. W. Fisher et al., “Phase Noise Performance Of Optoelectronic Oscillator Using Optical Transversal Filters,” 2014 IEEE Benjamin Franklin Symposium on Microwave and Antenna Sub-systems for Radar, Telecommunications and Biomedical Applications, pp. 1–3.
  43. Lute Maleki et al., “Tunable Opto-Electronic Oscillator Having Optical Resonator Filter Operating at Selected Modulation Sideband,” U.S. Patent 8976822B2, March 10, 2015.
  44. T. Sun, Li. Zhang, A. K. Poddar, U. L. Rohde and A. S. Daryoush, “Frequency Synthesis of Forced Opto-Electronic Oscillators at the X-Band,” Chin. Opt. Lett., Vol. 15, No. 1, January 10, 2017, p. 010009.
  45. A. S. Daryoush, “Phase Noise Degradation in Nonlinear Fiber Optic Links Distribution Networks for Communication Satellites,” Microwave Photonics from Components to Applications and Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers, May 2003.
  46. H. C. Chang, A. Borgioli, P. Yeh and R. A. York, “Analysis of Oscillators with External Feedback Loop for Improved Locking Range and Noise Reduction,” IEEE Trans. Microave Theory Tech., Vol. 47, No. 8, August 1999, pp. 1535–1543.
  47. H. C. Chang, “Phase Noise in Self-Injection Locked Oscillators-Theory and Experiment,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 51, No. 9, September 2003, pp. 1994–1999.
  48. T. P. Wang, Z. M. Tsai, K. J. Sun and H. Wang, “Phase Noise Reduction of X-Band Push-Push Oscillator with Second Harmonic Self-Injection Techniques,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 55, No. 1, January 2007, pp. 66–77.
  49. L. Zhang et al., “Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of SSB Phase Noise Reduction in Self-Injection Locked Oscillators Using Optical Delay Loops,” IEEE Photonics J., Vol. 5, No. 6, December 2013.
  50. M. Alemohammad, L. Yifei and P. Herczfeld, “Design and Dynamics of Multiloop Optical Frequency Locked Loop,” J. Lightwave Technology, Vol. 31, No. 22, November 2013, pp. 3453–3459.
  51. G. Pillet et al., “Dual-Frequency Laser at 1.5 μm for Optical Distribution and Generation of High-Purity Microwave Signals,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 26, No. 15, August 2008.
  52. L. Zhang, A. K. Poddar, U. L. Rohde and A. S. Daryoush, “Comparison of Optical Self-Phase Locked Loop Techniques for Frequency Stabilization of Oscillators,” IEEE Photonics Journal, Vol. 6, No. 5, October 2014, pp. 1–15.
  53. A. K. Poddar, U. L. Rohde and A. S. Daryoush, “Self-Injection Locked Phase Locked Loop Optoelectronic Oscillator,” U.S. Patent 20140186045, July 3, 2014.
  54. L. Zhang et al., “Self-ILPLL Using Optical Feedback for Phase Noise Reduction in Microwave Oscillators,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters,Vol. 27, No. 6, 2015, pp. 624–627.
  55. T. Sun et al., “Limits in Timing Jitters of Forced Microwave Oscillator Using Optical Self-ILPLL,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 29, No. 2, January 15, 2017, pp. 181–184.
  56. T. Sun, L. Zhang, K. Receveur, A. K. Poddar, U. L. Rohde and A. S. Daryoush, “Oscillator Phase Noise Reduction using Optical Feedback with Dual Drive Mach-Zehnder Modulator,” Proc. of 2015 IEEE International Microwave Symp., May 2015.
  57. A. K. Poddar, U. L. Rohde and A. S. Daryoush, “Integrated Production of Self-Injection Locked Self-Phase Loop Locked Opto-Electronic Oscillators,” U.S. Patent 20140270786, September 18, 2014.
  58. T. Sun and A. S. Daryoush, “Ultra-Stable RF Signal Generator Using Beat-Notes Output of DBR Based Multi-Modes Lasers,” 2017 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, 2017, pp. 1–3.
  59. A. S. Daryoush and T. Sun, “Compact Highly Stable Synthesized RF Sources Using Self Mode-Locked Beat-Notes of Multimodes of Multimode Lasers,” U.S. Patent Application No. 62/576,398, October 24, 2017.
  60. A. K. Poddar, U. L. Rohde and A. S. Daryoush, “Optoelectronic Oscillator using Monolithically Integrated Multi-Quantum Well Laser and Phase Modulator,” U.S. Patent Application No. 63/702,970 July 25, 2018.
  61. X. Zhang and A. S. Daryoush, “Bias Dependent Low Frequency Noise Up-Conversion in HBT Oscillators,” IEEE Microwave & Guided Wave Lett., Vol. 4, No. 12, December 1994.
  62. R. Boudot and E. Rubiola, “Phase Noise in RF and Microwave Amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Freq. Control, Vol. 59, No. 12, December 2012, pp. 2613–2624.
  63. X. Zhang, D. Sturzebecher and A. S. Daryoush, “Comparison of the Phase Noise Performance of HEMT and HBT Based Oscillators,” IEEE 1995 International Microwave Symposium Digest, pp. 697–700.
  64. F. Pantano et al., “Forced Opto-Electronic Oscillators Using Efficient PBG Based Phase Modulators,” 2018 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, pp. 1–3.
  65. F. T. Pantano, K. Wei, T. Sun and A. S. Daryoush, “SILPLL Based Forced Opto-Electronic Oscillator using a Phase Modulator in a Sagnac Loop,” 2018 IEEE Topical Conference on Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks,
    pp. 66–69.
  66. A. S. Daryoush, T. Sun, K. Wei, F. Pantano, A. K. Poddar and U. L. Rohde, “Computer Control of Self Injection Locked Phase Locked Opto-Electronic Oscillator Based K-Band Frequency Synthesizers: Part 2,” Microwave Journal, Vol. 62, No. 9, September 2019.