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White Papers

Interaction of Intermodulation Products between DUT and Spectrum Analyzer

September 24, 2013
This white paper describes the interaction between intermodulation products generated by a device under test (DUT) and intermodulation products generated internally in a spectrum analyzer. The overall intermodulation distortion may be too optimistic or pessimistic. Examples demonstrating cancelling IM products and necessary steps to avoid an influence of the spectrum analyzer on the measurement results are outlined.

Troubleshooting EMI in Embedded Designs

September 24, 2013
Today, engineers need reliable data fast, and to ensure compliance with regulations for electromagnetic compatibility in the most economical way, appropriate measures must be taken early in the design phase. This paper provides a brief introduction to embedded EMI troubleshooting challenges and how to use a digital oscilloscope to debug the two key culprits of EMI - switching power supplies and power amplifiers.

Real-Time Analysis Techniques for Making Wireless Measurements

September 19, 2013
Today's complex, signal-rich systems and environments are challenging for RF engineers who are trying to bring advanced products to market quickly. Learn the strengths of using real-time spectrum analysis to measure the agile signals and sophisticated modulation schemes used in wireless. A companion application note is also available that explains how to go beyond making measurements to complete the solution using post-processing analysis, signal replay, and transfer of captured signals to other analysis or simulation tools.

Make the QuarterBack Your First Round Pick

September 17, 2013
In high frequency applications, consistent mating is required to ensure reliable performance. Generally, this means the use of threaded connectors which require torque wrenches causing problems in high density or hard to reach areas. Standard blind-mate connectors address this issue, but require demating tools that do not ensure a positive mate. The QuarterBack® family of connectors encompasses the best of blind-mate and threaded connector features. With minimal insertion forces due to incorporating the ease of a quarter turn bayonet style coupling nut, the QuarterBack® is the solution for your application.

High Power GaN Transistors in MACOM's Rugged Plastic Packages

September 17, 2013
This paper addresses a new lineup of high power GaN transistors from M/A-COM Technology Solutions (MACOM) in space-saving, rugged plastic packaging. These new GaN in plastic devices offer comparable reliability and are much lighter-weight than conventional ceramic-packaged GaN devices. By leveraging GaN's thermal, bandwidth and PAE advantages, in combination with MACOM's stringent thermal testing and small size, TRUE SMT™ plastic packaging techniques, these devices help system designers create a new generation of high power, ultra-compact, agile, rugged radar systems for use in traditional and next-generation fixed-installation and mobile radar applications.

Bringing Rapid Prototyping In-House

September 17, 2013
What follows is a review of two different ways to build prototype RF/microwave PCBs: through an outside PCB fabrication company and by investing in an in-house PCB milling machine. Hundreds of RF/microwave companies have invested in in-house rapid prototyping machines through a leap of faith in what they might mean to their companies, and have reaped the benefits. More fiscally conservative companies balk at such an investment, until they fully understand how it will impact the bottom line and help the company. The cost of a rapid prototyping machine can be considerable compared to the perceived low overhead cost of an outside PCB fabrication facility, but often overlooked are its advantages in terms of market-readiness, product performance, design flexibility, timing, and innovation.

RF and Microwave Fiber Optic Delay Line Techniques

September 17, 2013
Delay lines are used for developing, qualifying, and calibrating radar systems, radio altimeters, radios, feedforward amplifiers, telemetry and other systems. Traditional RF and microwave delay line technology required long, bulky, electrical transmission lines to delay electrical signals for a precise period of time. Flexible, coaxial cables are commonly used to produce the desired delay. Eastern OptX fiber-optic based systems overcome the disadvantages of the traditional techniques and provide stable broad-band performance in a rugged and compact system.

EDA Software Design Flow Considerations for the RF/Microwave Module Designer

September 17, 2013
Miniaturization of consumer products, aerospace and defense systems, medical devices, and LED arrays has spawned the development of a technology known as the multi-chip module (MCM), which combines multiple integrated circuits (ICs), semiconductors dies, and other discrete components within a unifying substrate for use as a single component.

VNA's High-Speed Architecture Advances Radar Pulse Measurement Timing Resolution and Accuracy

September 17, 2013
This white paper introduces a new VNA platform that takes advantage of a high-speed digitizing architecture to offer the industry's highest level of measurement resolution and timing accuracy. The architecture also capitalizes on deep memory to observe DUT behavior over longer periods of time (without sacrificing resolution) - whether looking for thermal and trapping effects in devices or measuring DUTs with lower pulse repetition frequencies. The white paper will also present how the platform's four independent receiver measurement windows enable reference position control to support various calibration and system timing needs, which may otherwise have masked DUT rise/fall behavior. Finally, it introduces a new pulse measurement user interface that offers real-time parameter modifications for increased confidence in setting up your measurement.

How to Increase Power Amplifier Test Throughput

September 17, 2013
Power amplifier designs for mobile handsets are becoming more complex, which directly impacts test demands and the cost of test. Complexity increases with the introduction of new, wider bandwidth standards and the addition of the number of radios to each device. Business issues, such as pressure on prices of these devices places greater demands on engineering teams producing power amplifiers. Engineers who test mobile power amplifiers and front end modules on the production line are looking for solutions to reduce test cost through maximizing throughput while ensuring that the devices meet required performance levels. This application note provides an overview of the key issues in a power amplifier and front end module test system related to the RF signal analyzer and generator.

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