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Test and Measurement

An Enhanced 3D-TLM Solver

The main criterion when an EM engineer uses modeling and design packages is that it should enable him to meet his daily challenges of designing new products that work in their intended environment. This is now becoming a reality with the advent of the Micro-stripes Version 6.1 3D-EM modeling...
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RF Closure Shortens the Product Development Process

Applied Wave Research Inc. (AWR™) has focused on an engineering effort to eliminate uncertainty in the high frequency design process by closing gaps in existing design methodologies and strengthening the links between system specifications and circuit performance, electrical design and physical layout, and computer simulation and RF measurements. This...
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Software for Creation of Custom Radar Pulse Patterns

Creating single-emitter pulse patterns for testing radar receivers is a complex, time-consuming process because of the extensive mathematics required, whether creating the initial waveform, modifying any of its characteristics such as pulse shaping and compression, or creating custom pulse patterns. A comprehensive software application called Signal Studio for Pulse...
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Precision Test Cable Assemblies to 40 GHz

The Accu-Test™ products are a family of precision cable assemblies that are designed for use in the DC to 40 GHz frequency range, intended to facilitate accurate measurements and exhibit low loss characteristics at a competitive price for precision test and measurement applications. The family is currently comprised of...
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Pulsed I-V for Nonlinear Modeling

Current-voltage characterization under suitably performed pulsed bias conditions can more closely approximate the dynamic behavior of transistors and diodes under large signal RF conditions. Some understanding of the basics and a relatively simple inst...
Accurate, nonlinear, active device models are critical to achieving design success for circuits such as power amplifiers, oscillators and mixers, using computer-aided engineering (CAE) software such as Agilent Technologies' Advanced Design System (ADS™), Applied Wave Research's Microwave Office™, Eagleware's Genesys™ or Ansoft's Serenade™. Prior work has made it clear...
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The Importance of Phase Accuracy in Differential VNA Measurements

The impact of phase errors in vector network analyzer measurements has become more significant with the increased use of balanced devices and non-50 Ω reference impedances. These significant phase errors are often traceable to calibration or de-em...
The rapidly increasing use of differential RF and microwave circuits has created many new measurement challenges. In S-parameter measurements, for example, transmission phase accuracy could often be ignored with little impact on specification-critical measurements. This is no longer true in the measurement of differential circuits, since seemingly small phase...
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RF Coplanar Probe Basics

Explanation of the construction, characteristics and usage of coplanar waveguide probes
Coplanar waveguide probes, also referred to as coplanar probes, are the method of choice for launching RF signals on and off a wafer. This article explains their construction, RF characteristics and proper usage. Before the advent of coplanar probes, finding the RF behavior of a die on a wafer...
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A Low Noise Wideband Microwave Oscillator Using a Tunable Microstrip Combline Filter

In RF measurement equipment, microwave synthesized signal sources, broadband digital satellite receivers and many other applications, broadband and low phase noise oscillators are becoming more and more important. A wide tuning range and good phase noi...
Typical oscillator designs use a common-base or common-collector circuit for generating a negative resistance at one port, which is usually terminated with a parallel or series LC-resonant circuit. The main problems in this design are the bandwidth of the negative resistance, which cannot be easily extended over one frequency...
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Overcoming Hard Limiter Suppression

For about half a century the suppression effects of bandpass hard limiters on various combinations of signals and interference have attracted widespread interest. 1-4 Certain "rules of thumb" have accreted around a variety of theoretical results. The purpose of this article is to revisit issues of interpretation and to...
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Hybrid Synthesizer Tutorial

Use of a variety of synthesis blocks to create frequency synthesis systems with enhanced performance characteristics
Frequency synthesizers are used in a variety of communications and timing systems. Phase-locked loops (PLL) have been the "workhorse" of the majority of traditional synthesizers and clock generation circuits. However, there are other types of synthesis blocks available such as direct digital synthesizers (DDS), mixers, frequency doublers and dividers...
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