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Test and Measurement

Hybrid Synthesizer Tutorial

Use of a variety of synthesis blocks to create frequency synthesis systems with enhanced performance characteristics
Frequency synthesizers are used in a variety of communications and timing systems. Phase-locked loops (PLL) have been the "workhorse" of the majority of traditional synthesizers and clock generation circuits. However, there are other types of synthesis blocks available such as direct digital synthesizers (DDS), mixers, frequency doublers and dividers...
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HFSS Software for Next-generation Design

When HFSS™ was introduced in February 1990, it created a new era in microwave design. Prior to this event, microwave design was limited to simple analyses and cut-and-try methods. With HFSS, engineers could conveniently build, analyze and refine three-dimensional (3D) microwave prototypes using their computers. For the first time,...
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New Enhancements for the GENESYS Software Suite

All 15 modules of the GENESYS RF/microwave design software suite have recently been enhanced. For 17 years, Eagleware has worked with thousands of customers worldwide to continuously upgrade its suite of synthesis, simulation and design environment tools. Major enhancements in the current release include new models, an antenna pattern...
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RF/Microwave Manipulators for Precise Test Probe Measurements

In today's fast paced semiconductor industry making accurate and reliable measurements at microwave frequencies is critical to successful product development operations. Microwave measurements enable engineers to characterize both the linear and nonlinear behavior of devices, providing critical performance information. Precise probe contact is a necessity to obtain accurate test...
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A Fully-integrated 5 GHz 0.18 µm CMOS VCO for 802.11a WLAN Applications

This article presents a fully-integrated 5 GHz CMOS voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) for a U-NII band 802.11a WLAN application. The VCO core circuit uses only PMOS fabricated with the 0.18 mm 1P6M standard CMOS process to obtain better phase noise p...
Due to the fast growing demand for broadband wireless communications, the operating frequency is moving toward the 5 GHz U-NII band. With a maximum data rate of 54 Mbps, the IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN (WLAN) standard specifies a 300 MHz allocation of spectrum in the 5 GHz range that...
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Understanding W-CDMA Modulation Quality Measurements

There are many ways of characterizing W-CDMA transmitter performance. However, the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specifications require two measurements to verify the in-channel modulation quality of W-CDMA transmitters - error vector magnitude (EVM) and peak code domain power (peak CDE). This article explores the purpose behind these key...
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Active Multipliers and Dividers to Simplify Synthesizers

A new family of active frequency multipliers and dividers is featured this month
Modern frequency synthesis uses a combination of frequency multiplication and frequency division to generate the required data and carrier signals for microwave radio and radar applications. Frequency multiplication increases the carrier frequency while increasing the phase noise of the carrier by 20log(N), where N is the multiplication factor. Conversely,...
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Precision E<sub>b</sub>/N<sub>o</sub> Generators for BER Testing to 44 GHz

With the continually increasing complexity of digital modulation techniques employed in wireless and satellite communications systems, instruments that accurately generate and maintain a set level of bit energy-to-noise density ratio (E b /N o ) have become valued tools in optimizing bit-error rate (BER) performance. These instruments have been...
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An RF Signal Generator Offering Full Digital, Vector and Analog Modulation

The humble signal generator has come out of its modest, functional shell and taken on a streamlined, compact, state-of-the-art persona with the development of the 3410 series. This family of digital RF signal generators has evolved in response to the worldwide growth of second- and third-generation wireless communications systems...
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