- Buyers Guide
Manual Variable Attenuators
This series of 2 W manual variable attenuators offers users a wide choice of attenuation ranges from 0 to 10 dB in 1 dB steps up to 0 to 110 dB in 1 dB steps. This series of attenuators covers a frequency range of DC to 3000 MHz, depending on the model, and are available with SMA, N or BNC connectors. All models are equipped with mounting holes for panel installation and can be furnished with bench top brackets or mounted into rack mount front panels.
BroadWave Technologies Inc.,
The model HMC329LM3 is a 26 to 40 GHz surface-mount, passive double-balanced MMIC mixer that can be used as either an up or downconverter. It offers a broad DC to 8 GHz IF. Good isolations, > 32 dB, are provided by on-chip baluns while the mixer requires no external components and no DC bias. Input IP3 is +20 dBm. This mixer complements the performance of the HMC292LM3C 17 to 31 GHz passive double-balanced MMIC surface-mount mixer.
Hittite Microwave Corp.,
Programmable Step Attenuators
This PA series of binary programmable step attenuators is designed to operate from DC to 18 GHz. Two basic models, PA-124 and PA-125, offer attenuation ranges of 15 and 70 dB. Control is in standard binary format: 1–2–4–8. The attenuators are available with failsafe or latching operation, 12 or 28 V coils and optional TTL drivers. The attenuators offer a power rating of 2 W average at 25°C and 50Ω impedance.
RLC Electronics Inc.,
The model SL-8344 is a high power, weather sealed dual combiner. This combiner is used with cellular and PCS or GSM 900 and 1800 to combine and split dual antenna performance at the tower and base station. By use of this combiner, both high and low frequency antennas can be mounted on the same platform, and still use one connecting cable to the base, without interference between the two bands. The combiners’ specifications include a low frequency band of 800 to 1000 MHz and a high frequency band of 1700 to 2000 MHz. It displays a passband loss of 0.2 dB maximum, isolation of 45 dB minimum, return loss of 20 dB minimum and operates at a temperature of –40° to +85°C.
High IP3 Voltage Variable Attenuator
The model RVA-2500 is a 10 to 2500 MHz broadband voltage variable attenuator. This attenuator provides up to 55 dB typical attenuation and +43 dBm IP3 typical while maintaining constant in/out VSWR and insertion phase over the full attenuation range. This model has built-in biasing and a matching network and is housed in a shielded case for good performance on a PC board. Price: from $9.95 each (10).
Ultra-low Ω Chip Resistors
The ULX-2512 series of ultra-low Ω chip resistors is available in values ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 Ω. Tolerances available are five percent (0.001 to 0.005 W), five and two percent (0.005 to 0.010 Ω) and five, two and one percent (0.010 to 0.100 Ω). The series is offered in four-terminal Kelvin configuration (single side or wraparound) with platinum/silver, solder coated platinum/silver or gold contacts available. Size: 0.250" x 0.126" x 0.035" to 0.250" x 0.125" x 0.35".
International Manufacturing Services Inc.,
Single Sideband Mixer
The model SSB-0218 is a single sideband mixer that covers 2 to 18 GHz with numerous IF bands available from 30 to 500 MHz. Designed for broadband applications requiring carrier and sideband suppression, the SSB-0218 is a unique double-balanced single sideband mixer design, available in SMA connectorized and pin-package outlines. Local oscillator drive levels from +13 to +19 dBm are available. Typical conversion loss is 7.0 dB, with typical carrier and sideband suppressions of 22 dB.
Marki Microwave Inc.,
Filter/Integrated Low Noise Amplifier
The model 7LB10-00050 (7LB10-72.5/X30-O/O-LNA) is a LC filter with an integrated low noise amplifier (LNA). The filter design is a seven-section low ripple Chebyshev response. Passband is 57.5 to 87.5 MHz with a 55 dB rejection bandwidth of 70 MHz maximum. The LNA offers 40 dB of gain with a noise figure specification of 4.5 dB maximum. Size: 3.58" ¥ 1.00" ¥ 0.75" less SMA female connectors.
K&L Microwave Inc.,
Coaxial Bandpass Filter
The model AX07-0012 is a coaxial bandpass filter that features low insertion loss, high rejection and lightweight. It offers a center frequency of 2040 MHz, a passband of 60 MHz, minimum, and insertion loss of 1.0 dB, maximum. The filters passband ripple is 0.3 dB p-p, maximum, with a return loss of 18 dB, minimum. It has a rejection of 90 dBc, minimum at 1920 MHz and 2160 to 4000 MHz, and a group delay variation of 10 ns maximum over passband. Power is 10 W CW with an operating temperature of –30° to +70°C. Relative humidity is 10 to 95 percent non-condensing.
20 to 3000 MHz Preselector
This 20 to 3000 MHz preselector is designed for applications such as JTRS that require light weight, small size and low power consumption. The unit operates off +12 or +24 VDC. It provides digitally tunable bandpass filtering from 20 MHz to 2 GHz and high pass filtering from 2 to 3 GHz. This preselector provides 20 dB of gain and includes an RS-485 interface for easy integration into a system. Size: 1" x 5" ¥ x.5".
0.5 to 20 GHz Power Divider
The model PS4-24-452/10S is a power divider that covers the frequency range of 0.5 to 20 GHz. This divider offers a 15 dB minimum isolation, 4 dB maximum insertion loss and 1.7 maximum VSWR. Amplitude and phase balance are 0.5 and 8° maximum, respectively, and maximum input power is 30 W.
This range of attenuators integrates the company’s QMA connector type (quick lock formula) and snap-on mating connector system. These attenuators are designed as an alternative to SMA connectors for various RF applications, particularly for new generation telecommunication systems such as GSM, PCS, WCDMA and UMTS. The attenuators facilitate fast, secure and easy mating with minimum space requirements. No torque wrench is required. The range is available for DC to 3 GHz with 1 W and the attenuation is available from 0 to 20 dB with a 1 dB step. Other frequency/power/attenuation values are also available.
Radiall, Wireless/RFI Division,
RF Power Detector
The model RTG9001 is an RF power detector with on chip programmable threshold detection and a four output sequencer. With an input frequency range of 0.1 to 2.5 GHz and a dynamic range of 45 dB, the RTG9001 adds 3 bits of threshold programmability in a 14-pin TSSOP. Once RF power exceeds the threshold, four digital outputs sequentially go true with 0, 5, 10 and 35 ms delay, respectively. Applications include WLAN, Bluetooth and ZigBee repeaters and remote access points. The part operates on as low as 2.0 V and has a sleep mode with only 10 microamps current. Price: $1.40 (1K).
Low Profile Filters
These low profile, highly stable microwave filters meet MIL environmental requirements. The filters are designed for use in a wide variety of space-constrained applications, including avionics and unmanned aero vehicles. The low profile filters are available in lumped element, interdigital and combline filter topologies for bandpass, high pass or low pass applications. The filter family dimensions range from 0.23" to 0.28" and from 0.25" to 0.75" with performance characteristics designed to meet user’s needs. They feature drop-in axial PC pins with a frequency range from 1 to 20 GHz.
Spectrum FSY Microwave,
This 1 ¥ 4 beamforming network is designed for use in military airborne radar environments. The unit configuration incorporates one 180° hybrid feeding two 90° hybrids resulting in a 0°/90°/180°/90° phase structure at outputs 1 through 4, respectively. The octave band device offers low loss and moderate power handling capability in a compact housing. Beamformers are used to structure and direct the elements of an antenna array and are typically used within military sea-, air- and land-based radar applications, as well as space-based architectures.
Technical Research & Manufacturing Inc., Bedford, NH (603) 627-6000, www.technicalresearch.com.
These UL recognized, all-ceramic shoulder feed-thru capacitors are designed to offer a high AC/DC withstanding voltage and a working voltage up to 250 VAC. These capacitors offer a good cost/performance ratio with a coaxial feed-thru configuration and a sturdy, solder-in design that is ideal for design applications demanding space-saving solutions. Practical applications for this product (2470-500/501) include power supplies, inverters, power filters, class X/Y feed-thru capacitors and high AC/DC voltage applications. This solder feed-thru is a good choice for control devices where UL approvals are required.
These multilayer varistors combine typical 0.5 ns response time with capacitance values down to 70 pF in accordance with CECC42000 and IEC 61051-1. Key applications for the BCcomponents MLV 2322 varistors include voltage pulse interference protection, electrostatic discharge protection, radio frequency interference suppression, and input/output port protection in a wide range of end products including cell phones, audio/video systems, computers, portable testing and measurement equipment, and automobiles. Devices in the MLV 2322 573 (0603 case size) and 2322 574 (0805 case size) series are ideal for protecting sensitive components from incoming overvoltage transients. Additionally, the varistors can be used to suppress electrostatic discharges reaching 15 kV in air and 8 kV in contact. Features of the MLV series also include inherent bi-directional clamping, a high energy/volume ratio and nickel/tin terminations.
Vishay Intertechnology Inc.,
6 to 18 GHz Amplifier
The model AML818P3001 is a wideband amplifier that covers the 6 to 18 GHz spectrum and delivers 2 W of output power at 1 dB compression. Designed for applications requiring linear output power, this unit provides 30 dB gain and +33 dBm output power. Input and output VSWR is 2:1 maximum. Internal DC regulation, reverse voltage protection and field removable SMA RF connector shells are standard features. Operating from a single supply voltage of +12 to +15 VDC, the current draw is a nominal 1.8 amps.
AML Communications Inc.,
Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier
The model 177C, 10 kW, four percent duty cycle traveling wave tube amplifier (TWT) is an existing design that is packagedin a standard indoor enclosure. Control and protection PC cards are accessible through a front panel door that includes legend locating indicators, controls and test points. The front panel four-line display provides the TWT amplifier status and internal operating parameters. The TWT amplifier controls, indications and operating parameters are also available via the remote interface. Size: 36" x 24" x 40".
Applied Systems Engineering Inc.,
The AS0408 range is an octave band solid-state high power amplifier series that extends coverage of 4 to 8 GHz. The AS0408 range is available in power levels up to 30 W in a single 3U, 19” rack, expandable to 100 W in other mechanical configurations. Typically the power available over the majority of the band exceeds the rated specification by more than 50 percent. The units are suitable for EMC and laboratory testing, being able to withstand full-reflected power without fold-back. The rack-mounted versions contain built-in couplers for power monitoring, bar graph power displays, remote and local control, and a safety interlock.
Differential In/Out AGC Amplifier
The model UPC3221GV is an IF AGC amplifier with differential input and output. It deliv-ers 60 dB of gain, 50 dB of ACG range, low noise and low distortion over the AGC range. Designed for set-top boxes, HDTV tuners, cable modems and VoIP receivers, the UPC3221GV is ideal for any 10 to 100 MHz IF AGC application that demands performance and consistency. The differential architecture simplifies integration with a SAW filter on the input, and a high speed A/D on the output, while the miniature 8-pin SSOP package can help engineers challenged with the task of having to miniaturize designs. Price: <$1 (10K).
California Eastern Laboratories,
Power Amplifier Module
The model RMPA0965 3 V power amplifier module is designed for AMPS, CDMA and CDMA2000-1X applications. This two-stage amplifier that operates in the 824 to 849 MHz frequency range, is an InGaP heterojunction bipolar transistor device and is internally matched to 50 W to minimize the use of external components. Similar to the recently announced RMPA1965, the RMPA0965 features single positive-supply operation and low power/shutdown modes, while affording good linearity and high power-added efficiency. The RMPA0965 also meets all CDMA2000-1XRTT performance requirements and is efficiently packaged in a compact LCC outline. This amplifier boasts a 40 percent power-added efficiency at a Pout of +28 dBm, and high power/low power mode control to achieve a typical quiescent current of only 55 mA and to minimize DC power consumption at RF output power levels less than +16 dBm for longer battery life. Power shutdown is implemented using the Vref control pin, with no additional external components, resulting in a low leakage current of 1 mA. Size: 3.0 x 3.0 x 1.0 mm.
Fairchild Semiconductor Corp.,
Miniature Watch Crystal
This FSN miniature watch crystals size makes it ideal for applications where space is critical, such as in portable and handheld devices. With a frequency of 32.768 kHz, the FSN surface-mount device is optimized for a standard 12.5 pF load capacitance, with an optional 7 pF load capacitance available. Frequency tolerance at 25°C is –20 to +20 ppm and frequency stability is –0.045 ppm/(DC°)2 over the standard operating temperature of –40° to +85°C. Size: 3.2 x 1.2 x 0.95 mm. Price: $0.79 (3,000). Delivery: stock to 12 weeks.
The model PTF 211802A GOLDMOS“ is a field-effect transistor for wideband cellular applications at 2.1 GHz. This 180 W, LDMOS push-pull device is specifically optimized for 3GPP WCDMA applications. Typical two-carrier performance includes a 38 W average output power, 26 percent efficiency and 14 dB gain at –37 dBc IMD. Capable of handling 10:1 VSWR at 28 V, it also has good thermal stability and low HCI drift. The PTF 211802A utilizes full gold metallization and integrated ESD protection for good reliability.
This high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device is for power density, power-added efficiency and radio frequency results. Its performance and improved reliability is an important step in significant size and weight reductions for radar-based defense applications. Gallium nitride HEMT devices provide higher power density and efficiency required for high power phased array radar, electronic warfare, missile seeker and communications systems. The device’s increased power density can be the basis for simplifying radar power distribution in large systems and can greatly reduce operational electrical current. This advancement can lead to significant weight and size reductions in shipboard systems and land-based applications.
Single Chip Solution
The model STC3500 IC is an integrated single chip solution for the synchronous timing source in SONET/ SDH network elements. It is the same engine as in the SM3 module and is fully compliant with Telcordia GR-1244-CORE, GR-253, ITU-T G.812 type IV and ITU-T-G813 option 1 when used with an applicable oscillator. The STC3500 can operate in free run, locked or hold over mode, and supports master/slave operation with continuous input reference quality monitoring. Features include: good flexibility for design engineers, accepts eight auto frequency detect reference inputs from 8 kHz to 77.76 MHz and one 8 kHz cross reference, and the input reference frequency can be manually selected or automatically detected. Price: $98.00 (1000). Delivery: four to six weeks lead-time.
The model R005 is a front-end module used to integrate the complete dual-band front-end circuitry for wireless LAN devices. The R005 module combines two duplexers, two receive filters, two transmit filters and an antenna diversity switch in a single component. It is designed for use with WLAN chipsets that conform to the IEEE 802.11 b/g/a standard, operating in the frequency bands from 2.4 to 2.5 GHz and from 4.9 to 5.9 GHz. This integration and miniaturization is the result of low temperature co-fired ceramic technology. The company offers various front-end types in its new family of WLAN modules. They are compatible with WLAN chipsets and offer optional functions such as integrated baluns and directional couplers for RF power monitoring. Size: 5.4 x 4.0 x 1.4 mm.
RF Front-end Module
The model SKY65200 is an integrated RF front-end module for dual-band 802.11a/b/g WLAN applications. A single supply voltage and positive supply diversity switch control simplifies bias requirements. PA and LNA bias enable/disable functions provide for individual bias control. Power detection for both PAs is built in. The PA is manufactured on an advanced InGaP HBT process. All modules are screened at operating frequency prior to shipment for guaranteed performance. SKY65200 is targeted for high volume WLAN applications. It offers high linearity of 21 dBm (11b), 16 dBm (11g), 13 dBm (11a) to the antenna, high gain of 31 dB (11b, g), 29 dB (11a) and a low loss GaAs diversity switch. The model operates at 3.3 V, balanced RF TX, RX I/Os and is available on tape and reel. Size: 15 x 15 x 1.7 mm.
Skyworks Solutions Inc.,
The N9000-13 is an RF PTFE performance-blended laminate material with a dielectric constant of 3.38. This substrate option was developed to meet industry demands for a material that will drop into many existing designs. This material meets the required electrical parameters and has a UL 94 V-0 designation under the N9000-13 RF name. It performs well in low noise amplifier and personal repeater applications and is available globally with manufacturing at the company’s business unit in Tempe, AZ. The N9000-13 RF laminates provide the RF and microwave industry with the mechanical stability of a FR-4 material and the electrical properties of a PTFE material that is required for high frequency, low loss applications. N9000-13 RF is available in dielectric constants of 3.0, 3.2, 3.38 and 3.5 and a variety of core thicknesses offering flexible drop-in solutions for existing and upcoming designs.
Park Electrochemical Corp.,
Wireless Test Bench
This RF design environment (RFDE) wireless test bench offers system-level wireless signal sources and standards measurements from within Cadence Design System’s Virtuoso custom design platform. The RFDE wireless test benches enable verification of RF circuit designs to help engineers in the communications industry increase productivity and speed development of wireless products. Wireless architects can develop test benches early in the development cycle and export them from the company’s advanced design system into RFDE. RFIC designers can then access the test benches from within the Cadence analog and mixed-signal design flow framework to verify circuit designs before going to manufacturing. Price: $24,000.
Agilent Technologies Inc.,
RF Simulation Software
The version 7.91 is the recent release of APLAC circuit design and analysis software. APLAC combines a powerful RF and analog simulation engine with rich analysis and optimization features. The software may be used as a stand-alone design framework or as an analysis tool integrated with other standard design environments. APLAC 7.91 introduces a new interface for interoperability with Matlab software. APLAC 7.91 executes Matlab commands on simulation data, driving APLAC analysis further and faster. It offers several new features and models for IC level and system design. New and enhanced technologies include a WLAN signal generator block and an IMT2 mixer model. APLAC transient analysis implements an advanced algorithm making it faster.
APLAC Solutions Corp.,
3D EM Simulation Software
The EMPIRE 4.0 is a full 3D simulation software release that is for microwave devices such as antennas, waveguides, filters, resonators and embedded devices. This release offers many enhancements that result in easy modeling and solution speeds without sacrificing accuracy. The new GUI is intuitive and easy to learn. The software easily creates complex extruded objects using predefined Python scripts. Users can create customized Python Scripts. Linear and scaled extrusion functions simplify construction and solution of devices such as helix or horn antennas and coupled cavity resonators.
RTS Scientific Co.,
The IBS-18 is an ultra-high performance, broadband synthesizer that is designed specifi-cally for ATE applications. The synthesizer is based on indirect PLL design technology with internal DDS for fine resolution. The IBS-18 is ideally suited for ATE as well as radar and EW system applications where broadband coverage, low phase noise, fast switching speeds and reliability are of primary importance. The company’s VCO/PLL design approach realizes faster switching speeds, good microphonic performance and lower power consumption. The unique design architecture allows for switching speeds of 10 to 250 ms combined with low phase noise levels. The IBS series can be customized to meet special applications such as EW threat and target simulators, surveillance, radar, antenna measurements, SIGINT, COMENT, ELINT and flight line ATE. Size: 1U x 16.75" x 22" deep.
Elcom Technologies Inc.,
Coaxial Resonator Oscillator
This ACR series of coaxial resonator oscillators provides a stabilized fixed output frequency in the range of 300 to 3000 MHz with a minimum of +13 dBm of output power. Stability is achieved using a high Q ceramic resonator in a low noise silicon FET circuit with the output buffered to minimize frequency pulling. The frequency stability over the operating temperature range is better than ±10 ppm per °C. The architecture offers high performance in spectral purity, with harmonics typically down at –30 dBc and spurious at better than –80 dBc. For a 600 MHz unit the typical phase noise is –95 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz offset, reducing to –140 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. Size: 2.25" x 1.15" x 0.62".
Atlantic Microwave Ltd.,
InP Voltage-controlled Oscillator
The model GU-529P is a high power Gunn transmitter source. Output power is 125 mW, minimum. Varactor tuning is ±100 MHz, minimum at a modulation rate of up to 50 MHz. The varactor bias is 0 to +15 V. The Gunn bias is +9 V at 0.3 amps. The Gunn VCO is available at any frequency between 50 and 60 GHz as the center frequency. Mechanical tuning of ±150 MHz is also provided.
Dual Conversion Synthesizer
The CFS 2002 series synthesizer is designed for Satcom and instrumentation applications that cover frequency ranges between 4500 to 5575 MHz. With the integrated fixed L-band output it is ideal for dual conversion converters/receivers. The synthesizer features 100/125 kHz standard step size with high spectral purity. It complies with Eutelsat and Intelsat specification giving system designer’s phase noise margin. Control interface is either RS485 or 232. Output power level is +13 dBm. The unit consumes only 5 W of power. Custom step size and frequency ranges are available.
The model CRO6030A is a voltage-controlled oscillator that utilizes a ceramic coaxial resonator at 6 GHz. It operates at a frequency range of 6020 to 6040 MHz. Used in microwave data link applications, this oscillator offers good phase noise at –123 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz and –30 dBc second harmonic suppression. The CRO6030A also features 0.05 to 4.5 VDC tuning voltage for quick integration and a tuning sensitivity of only 20 MHz/V, allowing better PLL stability. Size: 0.05" x 0.05" x 0.22". Price: $39.00.
RF Digitizer Module
The 3030 RF digitizer module is a compact 3 GHz precision broadband RF digitizer available in PXI. When used in conjunction with the 3010 RF synthesizer module, the 3030 frequency down-converts and digitizes RF signals up to 15 MHz in the frequency range of 330 MHz to 3 GHz. The 3030/ 3010 combination offers high linearity and low noise performance designed for the analysis of radio signals including WCDMA. The 3030 outputs a set of amplitude and phase-corrected digital IF or IQ data samples with an amplitude accuracy of typically < 0.5 dB. The 3030 is supported by a variety of optional signal analysis applications, supplied as measurement libraries for spectrum and vector analysis of common system personalities. Price: $11,000.
Handheld Spectrum Analyzer
The model MS2711D Spectrum Master™ is a handheld spectrum analyzer that delivers improved sweep speed, and is designed with a built-in pre-amplifier that increases the analyzer’s sensitivity and dynamic range. The overall performance and field-proven design of the MS2711D make it the instrument of choice for field technicians who need to quickly locate, identify, record and solve problems during the installation, maintenance and troubleshooting of today’s wireless systems. The MS2711D, which covers a specified range of 100 kHz to 3.0 GHz, has a £ –135 dBm noise floor that makes it effective in measuring the low level signals used in many wireless systems. Full span sweeps from 9 kHz to 3 GHz can be performed in < 1.1 seconds, while the sweep speed in zero span can be set from < 50 ms up to 20 seconds. The high sweep speed allows intermittent interference signals to be captured with a high degree of accuracy. The MS2711D’s AM/FM/SSB demodulator further improves a user’s ability to identify interfering signals.
Dual-channel Arbitrary/Function Generator
The model AM3000 is a dual-channel arbitrary/function generator that is suitable for a host of applications. As an I/Q generator, it can be used to generate complex digitally modulated signals as required for mobile radio. As a function generator, it can be used to output all conceivable standard waveforms on two independent channels. Furthermore, the arbitrary function enables users to feed in any waveforms via USB and to replay them on two channels. Owing to its high spectral purity, comprehensive modulation capabilities and trigger functions, the AM300 is suitable for sophisticated tasks in development, production and training. A power supply module, PC module, the backplane and the operating module consisting of keyboard, display and rotary knob form the basis of the measuring instrument. The dual-channel arbitrary/function generator offers a high output level of 10 Vpp per channel at frequency ranges up to 50 MHz (square) or 35 MHz (sine).
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG, München, Germany +49 89 4129-13779, www.rohde-schwarz.com.
High Performance Cable
The RH cable series is designed for cable assemblies that support premium test and measurement instruments. The cable delivers improved phase stability versus flexure and temperature. Design and test engineers will find RH cable ideal for intermodulation and low noise measurement, flexible VNA/PNA test ports, phased array antennas, RFI and EMI test sites and various precision test and measurement applications. The RH cable assemblies achieve lower attenuation through the use of silver-plated inner and outer conductors, and low density microporous PTFE dielectrics and FEP jackets that provide consistent performance over wide temperature extremes. Shielding effectiveness of >100 dB results from the double shielded construction of a helically wrapped foil and a woven flat braid. Price: $3.89/ft to $9.26/ft (depending on quantity).
RF Probing Solution
This complete solution for multiport or differential linear devices and circuits can be characterized to 8.5 GHz. This turnkey solution includes dual high performance characterization probes, a series of dedicated dual impedance standard substrate, ENA Wafer Cal™ calibration software, an Agilent ENA series RF network analyzer (E5071B) and the company’s probing system. As an integral part of this solution, the company has introduced a series of dedicated dual and differential calibration standards as well as calibration software, ENA Wafer Cal. ENA Wafer Cal is a calibration software program provided by the company that resides on the ENA instrument. ENA Wafer Cal provides productivity enhancements to ensure RF engineers, in addition to achieving both accurate and repeatable calibrations, can perform the whole procedure up to 10 times faster than using the front panel.
Cascade Microtech Inc.,