Test and Measurement Channel

Harmonic Mixer Primer: The Gateway to the Millimeter Wave Frontier is Harmonic Mixer Technology

The next frequency frontier is the millimeter wave (mm-wave) band, which occupies the 30 GHz to 300 GHz spectrum (wavelengths from 10 to 1 mm). Emerging applications now span radio astronomy, communication, imaging, space research, and homeland security, and are starting to seriously populate this vast spectrum resourse. Market forecast and limited available spectrum suggest that attractive growth is just over the horizon so explorers are naturally migrating to stake their claim in this next frontier.

Intermodulation Distortion in RF Connectors

Intermodulation distortion or IMD has always existed in RF transmission paths. Until about the early 1990s, cellular communications had relatively low power carrier levels. Intermodulation distortion in passive devices was not necessarily a problem because the distortion levels were significantly below the noise floor of the broadcast system. Typical RF connectors such as the N connector satisfied the earlier demands but as the sensitivity of the receivers increased, a condition within RF connectors was exposed.

Radio Channel Emulation for LTE User Equipment Testing

This White Paper begins by explaining how fading occurs and describing traditional methods of radio channel emulation. It continues to describe the innovative, all-digital, approach used in the Aeroflex 7100 Series Radio Test Platform. It will be demonstrated that the Aeroflex platform allows realistic testing of LTE user equipment to be performed in a way that is impractical with traditional methods.

RF Amplifier Output Voltage, Current, Power, and Impedance Relationship

The mismatch between these real loads and the amplifier's output impedance result in a percentage of the forward power being reflected back to the amplifier. In some cases, excessive reflected power can damage an amplifier and precautions that may affect forward power are required. This Application note highlights the major RF amplifier characteristics that impact forward power as well as net power allowing the use of Ohm's law, even when conditions are far from ideal.

Statistical Analysis of Modern Communication Signals

The introduction of this digital transmission technology has made it necessary to deal with peak power levels up to 20 dB above the average value. All of the RF power components must be capable of handling these high voltage peaks to avoid break down, or flash over.

How to Measure 5-nanosecond Rise/Fall Time in Pulsed Power Amplifiers

Rise/fall time is one of the key measurement parameters when designing, manufacturing or maintaining pulsed radar power amplifier systems, especially for wideband pulse power amplifiers. Learn how to achieve 5 nanosecond rise/fall time RF pulse measurement with the 8990B peak power analyzer by reading this application note. This article also includes tips on how to consistently obtain accurate rise/fall time measurement results.

Voice and SMS in LTE

This white paper summarizes the technology options for supporting voice and short message service (SMS) in LTE, including circuit switched fallback (CSFB), SMS over SGs, and voice over LTE (VoLTE). It includes background information on the standardization process, and the commercial implications for the different options. The white paper also addresses test and measurement requirements resulting from the support of voice and SMS in LTE.

Improving Measurement Accuracy for High Frequency RF Connectors

Improving the accuracy of your microwave test and measurement equipment becomes increasingly important when high frequency devices are used in the transmission paths of radio, cellular, satellite and digital communications. This discussion helps to solve problems with measurement errors during and after calibration of your microwave test instrument.

How to measure 5-nanosecond rise/fall time in pulsed power amplifiers

Rise/fall time is one of the key measurement parameters when designing, manufacturing or maintaining pulsed radar power amplifier systems, especially for wideband pulse power amplifiers. Learn how to achieve 5 nanosecond rise/fall time RF pulse measurement with Agilent Technologies 8990B peak power analyzer by reading this application note. This article also includes tips on how to consistently obtain accurate rise/fall time measurement results.
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