White Papers

Guide to RF Coaxial Connectors and Cables

RF coaxial connectors and cables provide vital RF links in communications, broadcast, EMC testing, commercial, military, and test & measurement. In this guide, you will learn the different types of RF Coaxial Connectors and Cables, the various uses for each, and how to choose connectors best suited for your application.

Third Order Intercept Measurements with a VNA

Third order intercept (IP3) is a hypothetical point at which the fundamental signal power and the third order signal power is the same. In practice, we can never reach this point as the amplifier saturates even before this condition occurs. However, IP3 plays an important role in characterizing the device.

Over-the-Air RF Conformance Measurements on 5G NR Devices

Read this white paper to learn more on over-the-air (OTA) testing on 5G NR devices. Focusing on RF conformance aspects and UEs, the paper examines the requirements described in the technical specifications. You will learn about antenna measurement key parameters, test methods and setups, and 3GPP OTA testing for UEs.

Reduce SWaP, Increase Performance of Phased Arrays with an Innovative Filtering Approach

The spectral environment is quickly changing today. It’s becoming more crowded, which is resulting in an increase in spectral noise. This is presenting a variety of new challenges for RF designers, both in terms of the architecture and power needed to transmit and receive signals and the types of jobs filters need to perform in receivers (Rx) and transmitters (Tx).
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Getting Back to Basics with Ultra-Wideband (UWB)

Ultra-wideband (UWB) will be a game changing wireless communications technology. Learn the fundamental principles that have optimized it for secure micro-location-based applications. Discover UWB’s key features, different topologies used in UWB applications, and the main consortiums/alliances working to ensure interoperability and scalability of UWB products.

Providing Narrowband IoT Coverage with Low Earth Orbit Satellites

Non-terrestrial networks play a critical role providing service to locations not covered by terrestrial 5G networks. This paper describes the modeling of a SATCOM link, specifically how satellite coverage can be modeled using predictive simulation to capture important effects such as terrain masking, shadowing due to foliage, and multipath fading, which are essential to a proper evaluation of the link budget.

IEEE 802.11ax Technology Introduction

IEEE 802.11ax is intended to improve the user experience and network performance in dense deployments in the unlicensed bands. Explore the technology and get an overview of receiver and transmitter test requirement. Learn about the main goals and features of IEEE 802.11ax, the high efficiency PHY, and test requirements.

Head-to-Head Coaxial Interconnect vs OTA Testing for 5G

Without question, the rise of 5G has changed the landscape of wireless testing. One of the biggest changes is the ability of test engineers to perform over-the-air (OTA) testing without connecting anything or having a special setup. This is something that was not historically possible with past generations of wireless devices, as a result of FCC regulation and spectrum licensing law.

Pulsed Phase Noise Measurements

With advances in digital signal processing techniques modern wireless communications systems and radar systems have become increasingly digital and more constraints have been placed on packing more information into less and less bandwidth. On the wireless side, modulation formats have become more complicated with less margin for symbol error.
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Tackling Millimeter-wave Signal Analysis Challenges

Millimeter-wave technology transforms wireless communications by enabling higher data throughput. It brings a new set of test challenges to the lab including excessive path loss and wideband noise, that degrade measurement accuracy and repeatability.