White Papers

Rohde and Schwarz

Understanding EMI Precompliance Testing

The expansion of electronic and radio frequency technology into almost every aspect of daily life has greatly increased the importance of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing. This educational note discusses the fundamentals of EMC precompliance testing: what precompliance is, why precompliance is important, and how precompliance testing is performed.
Skyworks Solutions

Holdover Plays an Important Role in the Network

This Skyworks whitepaper discusses the role of holdover and its evolution from legacy SONET/SDH networks, which depend on frequency synchronization up to modern 5G mobile telecommunication which depend on frequency, phase, and time synchronization using IEEE 1588.
Altum RF

Cost-effective Front-end Components for X- and Ku-band Phased Array RADAR

This paper looks at common system architectures for short- to medium-range AESA radars, with a focus on the front-end components used to enhance system performance. These components include the power amplifier (PA) for transmit, the low-noise amplifier (LNA) for receive, and the transmit-receive switch to connect the antenna to the electronics. Key features include the different power levels, frequency bands, and compact size required to use these systems in urban areas.

Large Platform Co-Site Interference Mitigation

Analyzing co-site interference using electromagnetics simulation solutions requires:
  • Accurate determination of the coupling between antennas over a broad frequency range
  • Evaluation of the impact of non-linear electronic effects
This white paper describes how to analyze co-site interference on large multi-antenna platforms, modify proposed configurations, and easily eliminate co-site interference problems.
Richardson RFPD

Stop the Clock, How Advances in Quartz Crystals and Silicon Germanium BiCMOS Circuits Simplify High Speed Clock Generation for RF Data Converters

As the demand for higher frequencies and data rates and more accurate measurement capabilities increase, achieving ultra-low clock jitter for ADC and DAC converters becomes a critical specification. This paper illustrates how a high-quality crystal oscillator paired with a high-performance PLL/VCO enables small form factor, high-performance <30 fs clocks. 
Rohde and Schwarz

Testing for Coexistence in Crowded and Contested RF Environments

This white paper presents some of the key research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) challenges that arise when developing and deploying systems that need to operate in congested and/or contested RF environments.

COTS Modular Microwave Amplifiers for NewSpace Missions

In this tech brief, ERZIA reviews the main technical points that make a COTS Microwave Modular Amplifier suitable for NewSpace missions, and takes a closer look at the changes or modifications that might be recommended, depending on the type of mission. ERZIA also includes a summary of their COTS used in NewSpace missions.
Rohde and Schwarz

Output Power Measurement on Noise Sources

Noise sources used for noise figure and gain measurements are typically controlled by the spectrum analyzer or noise figure meter instruments and are calibrated with their ENR value (Excess noise ratio). This application note describes a technique to perform a calibrated noise power measurement (P_hot) with spectrum analyzers and noise sources.
Analog Devices

How to Select Antenna Front-End Components for Non-GEO Space Applications

The adoption of active electronically scanned antennas (AESAs) for satellite communication (satcom) has offered greater flexibility for operators and consumers. This article will review the design considerations when choosing antenna frontend (FE) components (low noise amplifiers and power amplifiers) for use in these beamforming arrays. 

Effective Test Strategies for DoD’s 5G Rollout

The DoD is adapting commercial 5G technology to meet tactical communications needs in terrestrial and non-terrestrial networks. This paper covers current 5G technologies and standards, demonstrates the importance of testing throughout the development process and offers a comparison of different use cases and test solutions.