# The Book End

High Frequency Techniques: An Introduction to RF and Microwave Engineering

This book is intended for the undergraduate or graduate student who wishes to pursue a career in radio frequency and microwave engineering. It presumes that the student has access to a computer and network simulation software but can be used without them.

Chapter 1 contains a review of the origins of wireless transmission. Chapter 2 is an engineering review of alternating current analysis using complex notation, impedances and decibels, dBm and dBW measures with the aim of solidifying these basic concepts. Chapter 3 treats resonators and how their bandwidth is influenced by Q. The scheme called Q matching is derived based on the Q ratio of reactance to resistance and the conversion between series and shunt impedances. Chapter 4 introduces distributed circuits based on transmission lines and their properties. Chapter 5 is devoted to the basis and use of the Smith chart, the basic tool of microwave engineers. Chapter 6 is a presentation of matrix algebra and definitions for the Z, Y, ABCD, S and T matrices. Chapter 7 is a very broad presentation of electromagnetic (EM) field theory, tailored to the needs of the microwave and RF engineer. It begins with the physics and defining experiments that led to the formulation of Maxwell equations, which are used to derive fundamental results throughout the chapter. The chapter concludes with an important use of the computer to perform EM field simulation of distributed circuits. Chapter 8 treats directional couplers, an important ingredient of microwave measurements and systems. Chapter 9 shows the reader how to design filters, beginning with low pass prototypes. It finishes with a treatment of manufacturing yield illustrated using a filter circuit. Chapter 10 is applied to transistor amplifiers. The intent of including so much theoretical and practical material in this text is to provide an immediate familiarity with a variety of circuits, their capabilities and limitations, and the means to design them.

High-Speed Circuit Board Signal Integrity

Stephen C. Thierauf

Artech House Inc.

243 pages; $89, £59

ISBN: 1-58053-131-8

This is a book for engineers designing high-speed circuit boards. It introduces concepts fundamental to high-speed signaling, such as lossy transmission line behavior, skin effect and the characteristics of laminates and surface-mount capacitors.

Chapter 1 describes the characteristics and construction of printed wiring boards. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the resistance of etched conductors, including skin effect and resistance increase due to surface roughness. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the capacitance of etched conductors, including environmental effects on dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent of laminates. Chapter 4 describes the effects of the inductance of etched conductors, including internal, external and mutual inductance. It takes a hybrid electromagnetic field and linear approach to the study of inductance (especially the concept of loop inductance). Transmission lines, their general circuit model, impedance, propagation constant and attenuation are the subject of Chapter 5. In Chapter 6, return paths and power decoupling are considered. In Chapter 7, baseband signaling, with emphasis on the effect loss has on signal quality, is discussed. Although it explicitly focuses on serial transmission, the discussion of harmonics and distortion is equally relevant to the lines within a parallel data bus. Chapter 8 considers the way transmission lines couple to each other and so induce noise voltages to other signal lines and the effect they have on one another’s impedance and timing. Chapter 9 discusses the specific electrical characteristics of striplines and microstrips, and presents some simple formulas to calculate their loss, impedance and time of flight. Capacitors are ubiquitous in high-speed circuit boards, but design engineers often do not fully understand their electrical characteristics. Chapter 10 discusses the operational behavior of surface-mount ceramic and tantalum capacitors.