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Test and Measurement Channel

Load-Pull in the 21st Century: A Review of the Past and Look to the Future

September 17, 2012
This paper provides a comprehensive review of modern automated load-pull, including a discussion of early impedance synthesis methods, and how they were improved with breakthrough innovations such as Focus MPTTM technology and systematic high-VBW sub-1 Ω test-fixture design techniques. More recent developments are next treated, including active-loop and active-injection impedance synthesis architectures, time-domain data acquisition, and advanced data processing and visualization.

Application Guide to RF Coaxial Connectors and Cables

August 13, 2012
There is a wide variety of coaxial connectors and cables available for use in the RF and Microwave spectrum. While often not much thought is given to these essential components, a misstep here can result in undesirable system degradation. Given that typical RF systems are comprised of any number of items, e.g. RF generators, amplifiers, attenuators, power meters, couplers, antennas, etc., it is not uncommon that a great deal of thought is given to these “high end devices while mundane items such as connectors and cables are often treated as an afterthought".

Making successful, confident NF measurements on Amplifiers

August 13, 2012
The Anritsu VectorStars Noise Figure Option 041 enables the capability to measure noise figure (NF), which is the degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio caused by components in a signal chain. The NF measurement is based on a cold source technique for improved accuracy. Various levels of match and fixture correction are available for additional enhancement. VectorStar is the only VNA platform offering a Noise Figure option enabling NF measurements from 70 kHz to 125 GHz. It is also the only VNA platform available with an optimized noise receiver for measurements from 30 to 125 GHz.

Radio Channel Emulation for LTE User Equipment Testing

July 13, 2012
This White Paper begins by explaining how fading occurs and describing traditional methods of radio channel emulation. It continues to describe the innovative, all-digital, approach used in the Aeroflex 7100 Series Radio Test Platform. It will be demonstrated that the Aeroflex platform allows realistic testing of LTE user equipment to be performed in a way that is impractical with traditional methods.

Statistical Analysis of Modern Communication Signals

May 14, 2012
The introduction of this digital transmission technology has made it necessary to deal with peak power levels up to 20 dB above the average value. All of the RF power components must be capable of handling these high voltage peaks to avoid break down, or flash over.

Redefining RF and Microwave Instrumentation

May 14, 2012
National Instruments has redefined the traditional approach by combining PXI hardware and NI LabVIEW system design software, leveraging commercial technologies such as multicore microprocessors, user-programmable FPGAs, PCI Express hardware, and system design software to meet the flexibility and scalability demand for future high-frequency test and measurement applications.

How to Measure 5-nanosecond Rise/Fall Time in Pulsed Power Amplifiers

April 6, 2012
Rise/fall time is one of the key measurement parameters when designing, manufacturing or maintaining pulsed radar power amplifier systems, especially for wideband pulse power amplifiers. Learn how to achieve 5 nanosecond rise/fall time RF pulse measurement with the 8990B peak power analyzer by reading this application note. This article also includes tips on how to consistently obtain accurate rise/fall time measurement results.

Voice and SMS in LTE

April 6, 2012
This white paper summarizes the technology options for supporting voice and short message service (SMS) in LTE, including circuit switched fallback (CSFB), SMS over SGs, and voice over LTE (VoLTE). It includes background information on the standardization process, and the commercial implications for the different options. The white paper also addresses test and measurement requirements resulting from the support of voice and SMS in LTE.

Improving Measurement Accuracy for High Frequency RF Connectors

April 6, 2012
Improving the accuracy of your microwave test and measurement equipment becomes increasingly important when high frequency devices are used in the transmission paths of radio, cellular, satellite and digital communications. This discussion helps to solve problems with measurement errors during and after calibration of your microwave test instrument.

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