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White Papers

Load-Pull in the 21st Century: A Review of the Past and Look to the Future

September 17, 2012
This paper provides a comprehensive review of modern automated load-pull, including a discussion of early impedance synthesis methods, and how they were improved with breakthrough innovations such as Focus MPTTM technology and systematic high-VBW sub-1 Ω test-fixture design techniques. More recent developments are next treated, including active-loop and active-injection impedance synthesis architectures, time-domain data acquisition, and advanced data processing and visualization.

IMS: A Mobile Device Perspective

August 13, 2012
Most discussions of IMS refer to the all-IP network and the massive levels of convergence it will deliver: convergences of access technologies, services and control functions. In describing the IMS subsystem itself, most of the attention is given to the large-scale upgrades required near the heart of the network. However, developers working on cellular devices require a different viewpoint than those working at higher layers of the protocol stack. In that light, this article presents a brief overview of the IMS subsystem from the perspective of the mobile device.

Small-Signal Intermodulation Distortion in OFDM Transmission Systems

August 13, 2012
A system that utilizes OFDM/OFDMA, such as the E-UTRA (LTE) downlink or the IEEE 802.11a/g and the IEEE 802.16 physical layers, transmits OFDM symbols, each comprising a number of modulated sub-carriers carrying data or pilot symbols, with inter-subcarrier spacing being equal to or an integer multiple of a fixed frequency. The channel bandwidth (B) is determined by the number of 'occupied' (modulated) subcarriers and the subcarrier spacing.

Application Guide to RF Coaxial Connectors and Cables

August 13, 2012
There is a wide variety of coaxial connectors and cables available for use in the RF and Microwave spectrum. While often not much thought is given to these essential components, a misstep here can result in undesirable system degradation. Given that typical RF systems are comprised of any number of items, e.g. RF generators, amplifiers, attenuators, power meters, couplers, antennas, etc., it is not uncommon that a great deal of thought is given to these “high end devices while mundane items such as connectors and cables are often treated as an afterthought".

Multicarrier TD-SCMA Feasibility

August 13, 2012
There are several options for the architecture of the transmit signal path. The factors that impact transmit signal elements are introduced, followed by a discussion of the different architectures. Figure 1 shows a direct conversion architecture for an initial point of reference only. Section 6 of 3GPP TS 25.105 describes the transmit signal requirements used throughout this discussion.

Bringing Rapid Prototyping In-House

August 13, 2012
Whenever time to market is critical, rapid prototyping can produce a first draft of a new product that allows testing, evaluation, and further refinement of the product idea, which helps a company more quickly and cost-effectively transform early concepts into marketable products. At the same time, for concepts that may not make practical products, rapid prototyping can spare a company further investment time and expenses by revealing the product's flaws at an early stage of the development process.

Radio Channel Emulation for LTE User Equipment Testing

July 13, 2012
This White Paper begins by explaining how fading occurs and describing traditional methods of radio channel emulation. It continues to describe the innovative, all-digital, approach used in the Aeroflex 7100 Series Radio Test Platform. It will be demonstrated that the Aeroflex platform allows realistic testing of LTE user equipment to be performed in a way that is impractical with traditional methods.

Best Practices for Making the Most Accurate Radar Pulse Measurements

June 25, 2012
Fast, accurate radar pulse measurements are critical when designing or manufacturing radar components. Knowing how to optimize power measurement tools will help engineers meet stringent market demands. Get tips on how to make the fastest and most accurate radar pulse measurements by reading this application note. This article also includes real-world scenarios that demonstrate how to put these tips into practice with Agilent power meters and sensors.

Solutions for 802.11ad PHY Layer Testing

June 16, 2012
This application note is designed to provide you with the latest insights on enabling simulation, generation and analysis of the 802.11ad emerging IEEE standard providing Very High Throughput (VHT)—up to 7 Gbps using approximately 2 GHz of spectrum at 60 GHz over a short range.

RF Substrate Technologies for Mobile Communications

June 13, 2012
This white paper discusses a variety of RF materials and substrates capable of meeting RF Front-End module designers’ requirements. You will gain insight into how state-of-the-art expertise in substrate technology can enable the mobile devices of the next decade.

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