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White Papers

System Noise-Figure Analysis for Modern Radio Receivers: Part 2, Y-Factor Noise-Factor Measurement

May 9, 2013

This artice is the second half of a detailed discussion of noise factor for modern RF radio receivers. In Part 1 we discussed the general concept of noise figure and how it is used to convey noise-performance requirements by product definers and circuit designers. It is also used to predict the overall sensitivity of receiver systems. We also presented calculations for a cascaded receiver. In this continuation article we focus on the Y-factor measurement as it applies to mixers. We state which measurement is applicable to the cascade equations derived in Part 1. We also explore some variations of the measurement method the could be used to obtain an approximation to the SSB noise figure of a mixer.

System Noise-Figure Analysis for Modern Radio Receivers: Part 1, Calculations for a Cascaded Receiver

May 9, 2013

This article ties together the fundamenal definition of noise figure, equation-based analysis of cascade blocks involving mixers, and typical lab techniques for measuring noise figure. In this Part 1 we show how the cascaded noise figure equation is modified by the presence of one or mixers and we derive the applicable equations for a number of popular downconversion architectures. We continue this discussion in Part 2 of this series where we describe the Y-factor method of noise-figure measurement. In Part 2 we focus on the case of a mixer as the device under test in order to identify appropriate measurement methods for mixer noise figures that can be validly applied using the cascade equations derived in Part 1.

Solutions for Design and Test of Downlink 8x8 LTE MIMO

April 16, 2013
The new application note “Solutions for Design and Test of 8x8 LTE MIMO” is designed to help you get insight into solving tough measurement problems in a unique way for both the design and manufacturing environments by explaining how to combine simulation with test solutions to realize high-performance 8x8 MIMO designs.

Resources to Optimize Your Design for Greater Battery Run-Time

April 16, 2013
Trying to increase battery life? Trying to be green or increase energy efficiency?  If so, then current consumption is most likely one of your key concerns.  Today's multi-tasking, battery-powered devices boast powerful processors, incorporate back-lit touch-screen displays, and have amassed multiple radio receivers and transmitters that are sending and receiving data at unprecedented rates.

Pulsed RF Operation of Microsemi GaN RF Power Transistors

April 16, 2013

This paper explains the pulsed RF operation of Microsemi pulsed GaN HEMT RF power transistors using as an example the 1011GN-700ELM 1030 MHz Mode-S Enhanced Message Length (ELM) avionics device. General descriptions are presented detailing both the pulsed gate bias operation and the bias sequencing operation of the “pulser” circuit used on the Microsemi evaluation test fixtures.

Advanced VNA Cable Measurements

April 16, 2013
This field brief will discuss phase-matching cables, S-parameter definitions as they apply to cable characterization and other cable parameters such as Phase Shift and Group Delay. Advanced Time-Domain measurements will also be presented as enhancements to the well-known Distance-to-Fault (DTF) techniques. In addition, diagnostic tools like the Smith Chart will be briefly described.


April 2, 2013

The primary goal of the MIMO OTA measurement system is to be able to compare Multi-antenna/MIMO devices and algorithms based on their throughput performances when tested against spatial channel models. All critical parts of the mobile terminal design (antennas, RF front-end, baseband processing) are tested in an end-to-end configuration. This document aims to present all the most relevant technical features of the MVG StarMIMO system relative to the MIMO OTA measurement technique with anechoic chambers.

"S" Series Amplifiers Produce Higher Power, Higher Fidelity Signals For Testing Wireless Output Devices

March 20, 2013
The purpose of this application note is to review a portion of the wireless technology and focus on a line of amplifiers that has been optimized for wireless test use. This analysis can also be applicable to some additional portion of wireless technology.

Introduction to Radar System

February 16, 2013
This White Paper provides a general overview of different military and commercial radar systems. It also covers some typical measurements on such systems and their components.

T&M Solutions for software Defined Radios (SDR)

February 15, 2013
This white paper presents the basic idea behind software defined radio (SDR) and provides an overview of the Rohde & Schwarz radios and further details of SDR test and measurement solutions offered by Rohde & Schwarz.


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