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White Papers

Alpha Micro - Coupler for RF Meters

September 28, 2012
Featured for the first time at Autovation 2012 will be the RF Savvy Series, patent pending, Nona-band Radio Frequency (RF) Coupler from Alpha Micro Wireless. The high 10 kV electrical isolation enables safe routing of the RF signal from the network interface card (NIC) or wireless modem to a remote external antenna via a bulk head RF connection in the meter base.

Testing New-generation Wireless LAN

September 18, 2012
The "Testing New-generation Wireless LAN" application note discusses the differences between 802.11ac (designed for Very High Throughput - VHT) and previous WLAN standards, the test requirements and the new challenges VHT brings. The application note also introduces the WLAN new-generation testing technology of 802.11ac and explains in detail Agilent's 802.11ac software which allows engineers to view and troubleshoot all 802.11ac modulation formats.

Solutions for Enabling Fast, Accurate and Efficient Testing of Voice Quality in LTE User Equipment

September 18, 2012
This application note is designed to provide you with the latest insights on how to best address the long list of test requirements when testing the voice quality of LTE UE, with the right VoIP test building blocks. Successfully providing voice support on LTE will require UE developers to bring together a host of new features and capabilities. Many of these items have been around for a while but have not yet been applied to mobile networking. Others are completely new. Regardless, bringing them together will likely cause significant test pain, as they will need to be tested in conjunction with LTE and/or IMS to be fully exercised.

New GaN FETs, Amplifiers and Switches Offer System Engineers a Way to Reduce RF Board Space and System Prime Power

September 17, 2012
Ever-increasing demands for faster product launch times, higher performance, lower part counts and reduced costs create RF system design challenges. This paper focuses on how the latest gallium nitride (GaN) products, specifically discrete transistors, amplifiers and switches, offer design engineers enhanced flexibility and performance options by reducing RF board space and system prime power requirements.

Using RF Power Meters for EMC Testing

September 17, 2012
The complexity of modern digital equipment has caused EMI/EMC susceptibility testing to become increasingly important. Many EMC standards have been created including MILSTD- 461, IEC 61000, ISO 11451 Automotive, EN 50, and FCC part 15 that provide specific guidelines for EMC and EMI test methodologies. Early standards required a CW carrier, or single tone with constant modulation as the disturbance test signal. This article will discuss how a peak power sensor can replace an average diode detector in a field probe to measure pulse power, improve repeatability and increase dynamic range of the power measurement.

Load-Pull in the 21st Century: A Review of the Past and Look to the Future

September 17, 2012
This paper provides a comprehensive review of modern automated load-pull, including a discussion of early impedance synthesis methods, and how they were improved with breakthrough innovations such as Focus MPTTM technology and systematic high-VBW sub-1 Ω test-fixture design techniques. More recent developments are next treated, including active-loop and active-injection impedance synthesis architectures, time-domain data acquisition, and advanced data processing and visualization.

IMS: A Mobile Device Perspective

August 13, 2012
Most discussions of IMS refer to the all-IP network and the massive levels of convergence it will deliver: convergences of access technologies, services and control functions. In describing the IMS subsystem itself, most of the attention is given to the large-scale upgrades required near the heart of the network. However, developers working on cellular devices require a different viewpoint than those working at higher layers of the protocol stack. In that light, this article presents a brief overview of the IMS subsystem from the perspective of the mobile device.

Small-Signal Intermodulation Distortion in OFDM Transmission Systems

August 13, 2012
A system that utilizes OFDM/OFDMA, such as the E-UTRA (LTE) downlink or the IEEE 802.11a/g and the IEEE 802.16 physical layers, transmits OFDM symbols, each comprising a number of modulated sub-carriers carrying data or pilot symbols, with inter-subcarrier spacing being equal to or an integer multiple of a fixed frequency. The channel bandwidth (B) is determined by the number of 'occupied' (modulated) subcarriers and the subcarrier spacing.

Application Guide to RF Coaxial Connectors and Cables

August 13, 2012
There is a wide variety of coaxial connectors and cables available for use in the RF and Microwave spectrum. While often not much thought is given to these essential components, a misstep here can result in undesirable system degradation. Given that typical RF systems are comprised of any number of items, e.g. RF generators, amplifiers, attenuators, power meters, couplers, antennas, etc., it is not uncommon that a great deal of thought is given to these “high end devices while mundane items such as connectors and cables are often treated as an afterthought".

Multicarrier TD-SCMA Feasibility

August 13, 2012
There are several options for the architecture of the transmit signal path. The factors that impact transmit signal elements are introduced, followed by a discussion of the different architectures. Figure 1 shows a direct conversion architecture for an initial point of reference only. Section 6 of 3GPP TS 25.105 describes the transmit signal requirements used throughout this discussion.

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