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White Papers

Resonant Approach to Designing a Band-Pass Filter for High IF, 16-Bit, 250 MSPS Receiver Front End

The advantages of using a differential amplifier to drive a high speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC) include signal gain, isolation, and source impedance matching to the ADC. This paper describes a procedure for designing the required interface circuit and anti-aliasing filter that maintains high performance and minimizes signal loss. A resonant approach is used to design a Butterworth fourth-order band-pass filter with a center frequency of 200 MHz. Some of the important design criteria include properly matching the input and output impedance of the amplifier for minimum signal loss and optimum linearity performance, while considering several possible product lineups.

Best-in-Class WLAN Measurements

The most recent 802.11 standard presents some challenges as discussed in The Next Evolution of Wireless LAN white paper. It is not surprising that test engineers have been scrambling to find the right test equipment to test this standard. Many test engineers have now realized that the old method of finding an expensive boxed instrument with the best performance numbers is now dead. Why, you may ask? The answer is simple: test engineers are getting starved for resources, mainly time, money, and space. The modern breed of test engineers is already using intuitive new technologies to reduce space and decrease test and development time all in a reduced budget. National Instruments is helping test engineers address these challenges with user-programmable FPGA-based instrumentation. This paper discusses the benefits of using an open field-programmable gate array (FPGA) for 802.11ac testing specifically.

Noise Figure Measurements

The Anritsu VectorStar's Noise Figure - Option 041 enables the capability to measure noise figure (NF), which is the degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio caused by components in a signal chain. The NF measurement is based on a cold source technique for improved accuracy. Various levels of match and fixture correction are available for additional enhancement. VectorStar is the only VNA platform offering a Noise Figure option enabling NF measurements from 70 kHz to 125 GHz. It is also the only VNA platform available with an optimized noise receiver for measurements from 30 to 125 GHz.

Master the Basics and Learn Modern Measurement Fundamentals DVD

Today's engineers working in communications, consumer electronics and aerospace/defense are faced with increasingly complex measurement challenges and rapidly changing technology. A strong foundation in basic measurement techniques is essential for success. This complimentary DVD from Agilent Technologies contains material covering a wide variety of topics of applicable to hardware, firmware, test system and system integration engineers. From design simulation, to digital and RF/uW measurement techniques, the knowledge contained on this disc will help you be more efficient and effective, whether you are in R&D or manufacturing.

Normalized Phase Noise in Peregrine's UltraCMOS® Devices

Phase Noise is a measure of the spectral purity of a signal in an oscillator system. It quantifies the short-term random variation of the frequency of the signal. Peregrine Semiconductor uses normalized phase noise in benchmarking its PLL products. By normalizing the phase detector noise floor to 1 Hz, the phase noise within the loop bandwidth can be easily calculated for any comparison frequency and VCO frequency.

Laser Cutting Epoxy Film

The RF Microwave and microelectronics industry has been using epoxy film for circuit board attachment to carriers and housings for years as an effective method to achieve electrical ground plane and mechanical attachment requirements. Historically, the epoxy preforms have been die cut to match the circuit board layout, ensure critical tolerances are met, and aid in the assembly process. In recent years the advantage of laser cutting epoxy film has become widely accepted in the defense electronics, and commercial RF Microwave and microelectronics industries. This paper will discuss the basic fundamentals of laser cutting and the advantages over the die cutting process.

AR's Complete Product Catalog for EMC, Wireless & RF Testing

AR has completed another revision of our sought after full line product catalog. Many new products have been included and various sections were updated to provide you with the information required to make your equipment research more in depth. The catalog is easy to use, with "find-it-fast" charts and color coding to help get right to whatever you need for RF & EMC testing. Please contact your local AR sales associate for a hard copy or visit our website at for a free download, either in full or by section.

Measurement of Harmonics Using Spectrum Analyzers

This Application Note focuses on measurement of harmonics using modern spectrum analyzers. It highlights the source of harmonics before focusing on their measurement using a spectrum analyzer. The Application Note also explains the benefits of the R&S FSW's high pass filter option for harmonic measurements.

Interaction of Intermodulation Products between DUT and Spectrum Analyzer

This white paper describes the interaction between intermodulation products generated by a device under test (DUT) and intermodulation products generated internally in a spectrum analyzer. The overall intermodulation distortion may be too optimistic or pessimistic. Examples demonstrating cancelling IM products and necessary steps to avoid an influence of the spectrum analyzer on the measurement results are outlined.

Troubleshooting EMI in Embedded Designs

Today, engineers need reliable data fast, and to ensure compliance with regulations for electromagnetic compatibility in the most economical way, appropriate measures must be taken early in the design phase. This paper provides a brief introduction to embedded EMI troubleshooting challenges and how to use a digital oscilloscope to debug the two key culprits of EMI - switching power supplies and power amplifiers.


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