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White Papers

Superposition vs. True Balanced: What's Required for Your Signal Integrity Application

November 14, 2012
The True Balanced/Differential technique uses two sources to create actual differential and common-mode stimuli, hence the shortened name true-balance. This white paper offers guidance to signal integrity designers on the differences between these approaches and which one may best fit their need.

Amplifier Poster

October 18, 2012

A ready reference poster of multiple RF/microwave amplifier graphs and tables from AR RF/Microwave Instrumentation .

Selecting RF Chip Capacitors for Wireless

October 16, 2012

With today's advancements in wireless technology, greater emphasis is being placed on component performance. This article will provide a discussion of ceramic and porcelain chip capacitors and understanding their behavior in RF product designs. They are an excellent choice for wireless applications where volumetric efficiency, reliability and RF performance are an absolute must.

What Is a Vector Signal Transceiver (VST)?

October 16, 2012

Software-defined RF test system architectures have become increasingly popular over the past several decades. Almost every commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) automated RF test system today uses application software to communicate through a bus interface to the instrument. As RF applications become more complex, engineers are continuously challenged with the dilemma of increasing functionality without increasing test times, and ultimately test cost. While improvements in test measurement algorithms, bus speeds, and CPU speeds have reduced test times, further improvements are necessary to address the continued increase in the complexity of RF test applications.

Signal Integrity:Frequency Range Matters!

October 15, 2012

Higher data rates introduce new challenges for test solutions. There are several 20+ Gbit/s high speed standards (Table 1) that are driving the upper end of the test spectrum to 70 GHz and even 110 GHz. Accurate measurements are needed to better understand higher order harmonics, as will new challenges related to conductor skin effects and dielectric losses on PC boards, along with the design trade-offs related to choices of vias, stackups, and connector pins.

Alpha Micro - Coupler for RF Meters

September 28, 2012
Featured for the first time at Autovation 2012 will be the RF Savvy Series, patent pending, Nona-band Radio Frequency (RF) Coupler from Alpha Micro Wireless. The high 10 kV electrical isolation enables safe routing of the RF signal from the network interface card (NIC) or wireless modem to a remote external antenna via a bulk head RF connection in the meter base.

Testing New-generation Wireless LAN

September 18, 2012
The "Testing New-generation Wireless LAN" application note discusses the differences between 802.11ac (designed for Very High Throughput - VHT) and previous WLAN standards, the test requirements and the new challenges VHT brings. The application note also introduces the WLAN new-generation testing technology of 802.11ac and explains in detail Agilent's 802.11ac software which allows engineers to view and troubleshoot all 802.11ac modulation formats.

Solutions for Enabling Fast, Accurate and Efficient Testing of Voice Quality in LTE User Equipment

September 18, 2012
This application note is designed to provide you with the latest insights on how to best address the long list of test requirements when testing the voice quality of LTE UE, with the right VoIP test building blocks. Successfully providing voice support on LTE will require UE developers to bring together a host of new features and capabilities. Many of these items have been around for a while but have not yet been applied to mobile networking. Others are completely new. Regardless, bringing them together will likely cause significant test pain, as they will need to be tested in conjunction with LTE and/or IMS to be fully exercised.

New GaN FETs, Amplifiers and Switches Offer System Engineers a Way to Reduce RF Board Space and System Prime Power

September 17, 2012
Ever-increasing demands for faster product launch times, higher performance, lower part counts and reduced costs create RF system design challenges. This paper focuses on how the latest gallium nitride (GaN) products, specifically discrete transistors, amplifiers and switches, offer design engineers enhanced flexibility and performance options by reducing RF board space and system prime power requirements.

Using RF Power Meters for EMC Testing

September 17, 2012
The complexity of modern digital equipment has caused EMI/EMC susceptibility testing to become increasingly important. Many EMC standards have been created including MILSTD- 461, IEC 61000, ISO 11451 Automotive, EN 50, and FCC part 15 that provide specific guidelines for EMC and EMI test methodologies. Early standards required a CW carrier, or single tone with constant modulation as the disturbance test signal. This article will discuss how a peak power sensor can replace an average diode detector in a field probe to measure pulse power, improve repeatability and increase dynamic range of the power measurement.

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