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This paper is designed to help network engineers, network planners, and network operations understand how to deploy Precision Time Protocol (PTP, or IEEE 1588). PTP is a next generation, packetbased timing protocol targeted for use in asynchronous network infrastructures based on packet transport technologies.
The volume of broadband data transmitted in cable systems has increased tremendously over the last decade. Since 2003, the number of subscribers to broadband data cable services has increased at a compound annual growth rate approaching 14% . The annual growth rate has since slowed, but recent trend information shows double digit growth in premium, so called "wideband" broadband services.
This field brief will discuss phase-matching cables, S-parameter definitions as they apply to cable characterization and other cable parameters such as Phase Shift and Group Delay. Advanced Time-Domain measurements will also be presented as enhancements to the well-known Distance-to-Fault (DTF) techniques. In addition, diagnostic tools like the Smith Chart will be briefly described.
Mobile network operating costs are driving the requirement for increased infrastructure efficiency, particularly in the final stage RF power amplifier. The venerable Chireix outphasing architecture proposed in 1936 by Henry Chireix has been updated with Gallium Nitride HEMT transistors operating in class E, and shown to deliver class leading efficiency.
To amplify weak signals received by the antenna in communication systems, low noise amplifiers (LNAs) are deployed. LNAs are used in various applications such as GPS receivers, wireless data systems, satellite communications, cellular handsets, radio systems, etc.
RF transmitters are an essential part of modern communications. Designed and assembled from core RF components, RF transmitters have many different forms and applications. We often think of RF transmitters in wireless communications, but the concept applies equally to wired applications such as cable television.
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