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White Papers

Solutions for Evaluating Beamforming Performance in LTE Base Stations

August 13, 2013
This new application note "Solutions for Evaluating Beamforming Performance in LTE Base Stations - Using Signal Analysis and Generation to Accurately Visualize and Verify TD-LTE Beamforming Signals" is designed to help you gain insight into how to most efficiently and effectively use signal analysis and generation to accurately visualize and verify TD-LTE beamforming signals.

Calculating VNA Measurement Accuracy

July 16, 2013
Vector Network Analyzers (VNA) are your primary resource when analyzing and characterizing systems and components for RF and Microwave measurements. They are regarded as accurate measuring instruments, however, quantifying the accuracy performance of a VNA in a specific application can be challenging. VNA specifications are a starting point; but, they are based upon very specific calibration and measurement conditions, which are not applicable for many applications.

Synchronization for Next Generation Networks - The PTP Telecom Profile

June 14, 2013

This paper is designed to help network engineers, network planners, and network operations understand how to deploy Precision Time Protocol (PTP, or IEEE 1588). PTP is a next generation, packetbased timing protocol targeted for use in asynchronous network infrastructures based on packet transport technologies.

Achieving New Levels of Channel Density in Downstream Cable Transmitter

June 14, 2013

The volume of broadband data transmitted in cable systems has increased tremendously over the last decade. Since 2003, the number of subscribers to broadband data cable services has increased at a compound annual growth rate approaching 14% [1]. The annual growth rate has since slowed, but recent trend information shows double digit growth in premium, so called "wideband" broadband services.

RF/Microwave EDA Software Design Flow Considerations for PA MMIC Design

June 14, 2013
The evolution of integrated circuit technology demands that designers in this field adapt to ever-changing manufacturing techniques driven by performance, cost, benefit, and risk demands. Today’s power amplifier (PA) designer working in solid state technologies must navigate a plethora of available processes, including gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium nitride (GaN) and silicon carbide (SiC) pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT), radio-frequency complementary metal oxide semiconductor (RF CMOS), and GaAs or silicon germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT), to name just a few. Similarly, different design challenges demand different amplifier classes and/or topologies like Class AB, Darlingtons, switch-mode PAs, and digital predistortion.

"S" Series Amplifiers Produce Higher Power, Higher Fidelity Signals For Testing Wireless Output Devices

June 14, 2013
As more companies take advantage of the benefits of wireless technology, output device manufacturers must depend on highly linear, quality test equipment to meet those demands. Wireless communications encompass a number of applications.

Advanced VNA Cable Measurements

June 14, 2013

This field brief will discuss phase-matching cables, S-parameter definitions as they apply to cable characterization and other cable parameters such as Phase Shift and Group Delay. Advanced Time-Domain measurements will also be presented as enhancements to the well-known Distance-to-Fault (DTF) techniques. In addition, diagnostic tools like the Smith Chart will be briefly described.

Switch-Mode RF PAs Using Chireix Outphasing

May 31, 2013

Mobile network operating costs are driving the requirement for increased infrastructure efficiency, particularly in the final stage RF power amplifier. The venerable Chireix outphasing architecture proposed in 1936 by Henry Chireix has been updated with Gallium Nitride HEMT transistors operating in class E, and shown to deliver class leading efficiency.

Oscilloscope Fundamentals

May 31, 2013
The oscilloscope is arguably one of the most useful tools ever created for use by electronic engineers. In the more than five decades since the modern analog oscilloscope was created, hundreds of useful documents and thousands of articles have been written about what it is, how it works, how to use it, and application-specific examples of the oscilloscope in action. It is the purpose of this primer to instead describe digital oscilloscopes, which have for practical purposes replaced their analog predecessors in the vast majority of applications.

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