White Papers

Passive RF and Microwave Beamformer Networks

Beamforming networks for antennas have evolved since the 1960’s. Early designs were typically fixed-beam architectures, although newer configurations include complex adaptive beamforming networks. This brief presentation reviews the origins of the technology, and offers several example circuit topologies of passive microwave beamformers. 

Antenna Beam Characterization of 5G Mobile Devices and Base Stations Using the R&S®NRPM Over-the-Air (OTA) Power Measurement Solution

The application note contains theoretical background on OTA power and pattern measurements. It gives step-by-step instructions for the verification of the power level and the radiation pattern of a device under test (DUT) in comparison to a golden device, and it presents an approach for verifying the accuracy of beam steering.

5G Primer for MIMO/Phased-Array Antennas

Evolving communication systems are driving developments in the RF/microwave industry. The large umbrella of 5G focuses on supporting three main technologies:
  • Enhanced mobile broadband, which is the natural development of long-term evolution (LTE)
  • Massive machine-type communications, also known as the industrial internet of things (IIoT)
  • Ultra-reliable, low-latency communications providing mission-critical infrastructure for services such as transportation, public safety, medical, and more.

LTE UE Receiver Performance Measurements

LTE user equipment (UE) receiver performance has significant impact to cellular radio network coverage and capacity. It determines the maximum data throughput across the air interface between the LTE base station (eNB, evolved node B) and the mobile network subscriber UE, thus it determines the total capacity across the air interface. Therefore, it is one of the most important measurements to verify the actual receiver performance of individual devices, and a key metric to compare different devices, in particular.

Z Power Resistors – High Power and High Frequency without Compromise

The Z-Power style resistor gives a better frequency response with similar thermal properties in the same size package. This technology offers designers exciting combinations with ideal thickness, package, aspect ratio and terminal geometry selections. Learn more about the advantages to both RF performance and power handling with Z-Power configured components.

Overcoming the RF Challenges of Full-Screen Smartphones

Smartphone manufacturers are introducing new full-screen handsets with an 18:9 screen aspect ratio. The form factor impacts antenna performance: reducing antenna space, shorter battery life, connectivity problems and lower data rates. Increased performance is required throughout the RF front-end, compensating for antenna impacts, maintain total radiated power and Rx sensitivity.

High-Power RF Measurement: Measurement Techniques and Methods

Techniques for accurate high power RF measurement in excess of 10W. A variety of methods will be considered including RF watt-meters, directional power sensors, directional coupler assemblies and flow calorimeters. The relative uncertainties, advantages and limitations will be considered to match the measurement to the user’s application.

Radar Waveforms for A&D and Automotive Radar

Detailed review of radar waveforms for aerospace and defense, commercial radar systems, including radar sensors used in automotive safety applications. Learn more on continuous waveform trends designed for specific needs, and application differences of continuous wave radar vs. pulse radar systems.

System Simulation Primer for RF Link Budget Analysis

An RF link budget is used to account for all the gains and losses in a telecommunication system — from the transmitter, through the medium (free space, cable, waveguide, fiber, and more), to the receiver. By accounting for the attenuation of the transmitted signal as it propagates through the communication channel, system designers can determine the required signal strength and antenna gain necessary to overcome all feedline and miscellaneous losses in order to ensure an appropriate quality of signal for successful data transmission.

Session Papers & Videos: DesignCon 2018 Keysight Education Forum Sessions

Watch all 8 KEF sessions from the convenience of your desk. Get complimentary access to the materials that made KEF a huge success. See what the industry's leading experts presented and learn about the latest challenges and solutions in high-speed digital technology.