White Papers

Numerical Methods in FEKO

Altair’s FEKO offers a wide spectrum of numerical methods and hybridizations, each suitable to a specific range of applications. Hybridization of numerical methods allows large and complex electromagnetic problems to be solved, thereby allowing solutions to problems that would be intractable with any individual method. This technical paper provides an overview of the methods.

Simulation of Beamforming by Massive MIMO Antennas in Dense Urban Environments

This paper presents a new predictive capability for simulating massive MIMO antennas and beamforming in dense urban propagation environments.  Wireless InSite's MIMO capability is used to show predictions for SINR at specific device locations and the actual physical beams, including unintentional distortions caused by pilot contamination.

Spectrum Analysis Basics

Engineering is all about connecting ideas and solving problems, and every tool you master enhances your ability to contribute. Explore Keysight Signal Analysis Basics and build a stronger foundation that will help you deliver your next breakthrough.

Using Enhanced Load-Pull Measurements for the Design of Base Station Power Amplifiers

Load-pull simulation is a very simple yet powerful concept in which the load or source impedance presented to an active device is swept and its performance is measured. Performance contours are then plotted on a Smith chart, which shows the designer how changing impedances impact the device’s performance.

PCB Substrates: Matching your design to the right material and rapid prototyping process

To stay ahead of the competition RF/Microwave, wireless, IoT, and other microelectronics, engineers and manufacturing teams must continuously evaluate the best new methods to produce efficient circuits. While the list of potential substrate materials is long, we’ll be focusing on a handful of top choices, each popular for different reasons.

FEKO for Rotorcraft Electromagnetics

The comprehensive 3D electromagnetic simulation software from Altair, FEKO, is well-suited for rotorcraft electromagnetic applications including antenna placement, rotor blade modulation, co-site interference, electromagnetic interference (EMI), electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and radar cross section (RCS).  This paper addresses the suitability of these solvers in FEKO for the rotorcraft electromagnetic applications, also showing examples.

Product Development Flow for 5G/LTE Envelope Tracking Power Amplifiers

This white paper examines the use of envelop tracking, digital pre-distortion and impedance matching via load-pull to improve the efficiency and linearity performance of RF power amplifliers targeting 4G and 5G applications.

Overcoming RF & Microwave Interference Challenges in the Field Using Real-time Spectrum Analysis (RTSA)

Learn practical strategies to overcome RF and microwave interference challenges in the field using real-time spectrum analysis (RTSA). Read about the different types of interference encountered in both commercial and aerospace defense (A/D) wireless communication networks. Uncover the drawbacks associated with traditional interference analysis and get an in-depth introduction to RTSA. Plus, see why this type of analysis is required to troubleshoot interference in today’s networks with bursty and elusive signals.

How a Modular Approach Can Optimize Design-for-Deployment for Signal Beamforming Applications

This whitepaper provides an overview of beamforming technology and a brief summary of application trends and evolving design considerations. Within this context, the second half of the paper explores how new high--‐performance modular DSP--‐based beamforming subsystems can help meet the emerging and future requirements for speed, functionality, configuration flexibility and software programmability, along with a lower cost of deployment and lifecycle maintainability.

Benefits of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Simulation for Automotive Radar

This whitepaper demonstrates how XFdtd's time-domain EM simulation enables rapid development by analyzing the performance of a fully detailed sensor model installed behind a piece of fascia without needing to build prototypes and run tests in an anechoic chamber.  The analysis of a 25 GHz sensor frames the discussion.