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White Papers

Synchronization for Next Generation Networks - The PTP Telecom Profile

June 14, 2013

This paper is designed to help network engineers, network planners, and network operations understand how to deploy Precision Time Protocol (PTP, or IEEE 1588). PTP is a next generation, packetbased timing protocol targeted for use in asynchronous network infrastructures based on packet transport technologies.

Achieving New Levels of Channel Density in Downstream Cable Transmitter

June 14, 2013

The volume of broadband data transmitted in cable systems has increased tremendously over the last decade. Since 2003, the number of subscribers to broadband data cable services has increased at a compound annual growth rate approaching 14% [1]. The annual growth rate has since slowed, but recent trend information shows double digit growth in premium, so called "wideband" broadband services.

RF/Microwave EDA Software Design Flow Considerations for PA MMIC Design

June 14, 2013
The evolution of integrated circuit technology demands that designers in this field adapt to ever-changing manufacturing techniques driven by performance, cost, benefit, and risk demands. Today’s power amplifier (PA) designer working in solid state technologies must navigate a plethora of available processes, including gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium nitride (GaN) and silicon carbide (SiC) pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT), radio-frequency complementary metal oxide semiconductor (RF CMOS), and GaAs or silicon germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT), to name just a few. Similarly, different design challenges demand different amplifier classes and/or topologies like Class AB, Darlingtons, switch-mode PAs, and digital predistortion.

"S" Series Amplifiers Produce Higher Power, Higher Fidelity Signals For Testing Wireless Output Devices

June 14, 2013
As more companies take advantage of the benefits of wireless technology, output device manufacturers must depend on highly linear, quality test equipment to meet those demands. Wireless communications encompass a number of applications.

Advanced VNA Cable Measurements

June 14, 2013

This field brief will discuss phase-matching cables, S-parameter definitions as they apply to cable characterization and other cable parameters such as Phase Shift and Group Delay. Advanced Time-Domain measurements will also be presented as enhancements to the well-known Distance-to-Fault (DTF) techniques. In addition, diagnostic tools like the Smith Chart will be briefly described.

Switch-Mode RF PAs Using Chireix Outphasing

May 31, 2013

Mobile network operating costs are driving the requirement for increased infrastructure efficiency, particularly in the final stage RF power amplifier. The venerable Chireix outphasing architecture proposed in 1936 by Henry Chireix has been updated with Gallium Nitride HEMT transistors operating in class E, and shown to deliver class leading efficiency.

Oscilloscope Fundamentals

May 31, 2013
The oscilloscope is arguably one of the most useful tools ever created for use by electronic engineers. In the more than five decades since the modern analog oscilloscope was created, hundreds of useful documents and thousands of articles have been written about what it is, how it works, how to use it, and application-specific examples of the oscilloscope in action. It is the purpose of this primer to instead describe digital oscilloscopes, which have for practical purposes replaced their analog predecessors in the vast majority of applications.

Accurate System Level Design with Low Noise Amplifier's BlackBox Models

May 15, 2013

To amplify weak signals received by the antenna in communication systems, low noise amplifiers (LNAs) are deployed. LNAs are used in various applications such as GPS receivers, wireless data systems, satellite communications, cellular handsets, radio systems, etc.

5 RF Transmitter Measurements Every Engineer Should Know

May 15, 2013

RF transmitters are an essential part of modern communications. Designed and assembled from core RF components, RF transmitters have many different forms and applications. We often think of RF transmitters in wireless communications, but the concept applies equally to wired applications such as cable television.

Understanding VNA Calibration

May 15, 2013
In this guide, the concept of calibration is presented and discussed in detail. Specific topics to be covered include how to configure the VNA for calibration, types of calibration and calibration kits. A minimal amount of calibration mathematics and theory will also be covered.

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