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White Papers

Wireless Telecommunications Testing with "S" Series Microwave Power Amplifiers

March 17, 2014
AR RF/Microwave Instrumentation offers a broad range of power amplifiers covering DC to 45 GHz with output power ranging from 1 to 16,000 watts. While applications include Electromagnetic Compatibility testing (EMC), RF component testing, physics (plasma generation) and chemistry (mass spectroscopy) applications, military (jammers, radar), material testing (ultrasound), medical diagnostic testing (NMR, MRI) and general lab use, this applications note focuses on a line of amplifiers that has been optimized for wireless telecommunications test use.

Long-Term, Remote Monitoring of Satellite Performance Using an Agilent High-Frequency USB Power Sensor

March 17, 2014
This application note describes typical satellite applications that require power measurements and recommends power measurement solutions. It also explains how these solutions can help simplify your work, and improve accuracy, reliability and test coverage. Also covered are new sensor functions such as built-in Gamma and S-parameter corrections and real time measurement uncertainty calculations for improved accuracy.

Achieving Excellent Vector Signal Analysis Results Using Innovative Noise, Image, and Spur Suppression Techniques

March 17, 2014
The need to measure spurious and harmonic signals is not new. However, emerging requirements include more of these measurements and specify demanding test conditions. In aerospace and defense applications, the task may be a search for known or unknown signals across a broad spectrum. In wireless communications, the need is to characterize increasingly complex devices in an ever-expanding number of conditions and device states - and do so as quickly as possible.

Techniques for Precision Validation of Radar System Performance in the Field Using Agilent FieldFox Handheld Analyzers

March 17, 2014
This application note provides an overview of field testing radar systems and Line Replaceable Units (LRU) using high-performance� FieldFox combination analyzers having multiple measurement modes including a peak power analyzer, vector network analyzer, spectrum analyzer and vector voltmeter. This application note will show several measurement examples of pulsed and secondary radar signals and also reviews the basics of� monopulse radar.

Recent History and Current Trends in GaN Reliability Testing

March 17, 2014
Accel-RF President, Roland Shaw, outlines the recent history and current trends for reliability testing and quality assurance to keep up with the shift in GaN from "research novelty" to "market reality". This white paper will give a detailed overview in the development of GaN devices and MMICs from a reliability and burn-in test perspective.

Output Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) Test Using the TEGAM 1830A RF Power Meter

February 18, 2014
When using a power meter that references to a 50 MHz, 1 mW output power reference it is important to know that the 50 MHz reference is within the specified performance limits. The TEGAM Model 1830A RF Power Meter coupled with a thermistor power sensor (also known as a thermistor mount) can accurately measure the SWR of a 50 MHz reference. By utilizing a unique function that most modern power meters do not offer; the 1830A allows the user to change the value of the thermistor mounts terminating resistance. Utilizing this method for measuring source match works well because it presents the source with two distinctly different values of Î?_Load which allows accurate measurement of the power absorbed under two different conditions. This application note will explain how we make this SWR measurement with the 1830A and a thermistor mount.

Virtual Antenna Technology: The Flexible and Off-the-Shelf Mobile Antenna Solution

February 18, 2014
The fast pace, ever changing evolution of the wireless industry puts an enormous time-to-market pressure on the engineering of every new mobile device. Being in the heart of every mobile product, the design of the RF front-end and in particular, the antenna, becomes specially cumbersome as every product currently requires a fully customized antenna. Fractus' new Virtual AntennaTM technology has been conceived to address this particular issue, proposing a new standard antenna element, the miniature mXTENDTM Antenna Booster, to virtually replace every customized antenna in virtually every mobile product.

Choosing the Proper Elastomer for Microwave Absorption

February 18, 2014
RFMW Ltd. announces the availability of a white paper discussing the proper selection of microwave absorbing and EMI shielding products. This Technical Bulletin from MAST Technologies defines the characteristic properties of various elastomers used in the manufacture of microwave absorbing products. For example, Nitriles show excellent resistance to petroleum based fuel and oil products so are superior to Silicone in aerospace and flight line environments. For high temperature applications or where dilute acids may be encountered, a Viton® based absorber may be the best option. MAST Technologies' elastomer based absorbers are used in a variety of commercial and military applications where unwanted RF emissions cause system degradation. Applications include the reduction or elimination of cross-talk in optical transceivers, dampening of cavity resonances, absorption of surface wave emissions within equipment chassis' and magnetic dampening of tuned coils. MAST elastomers can be custom tuned for frequencies ranging from 1 MHz to greater than 40 GHz.

Echo Reduction by Modal Filtering Technique in Advanced Near Field Antenna Measurement

February 18, 2014
This whitepaper discusses echo-reduction techniques and the effectiveness of the modal filtering technique in the improvement of antenna radiating patterns and the directivity estimation in a strong echoic NF measurement situation.

Noise Figure Measurements: Vector Star, Making Successful, Confident NF Measurements on Amplifiers

February 18, 2014
The Anritsu VectorStar Noise Figure Option 041 enables the capability to measure noise figure (NF), which is the degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio caused by components in a signal chain. The NF measurement is based on a cold source technique for improved accuracy. Various levels of match and fixture correction are available for additional enhancement. VectorStar is the only VNA platform offering a Noise Figure option enabling NF measurements from 70 kHz to 125 GHz. It is also the only VNA platform available with an optimized noise receiver for measurements from 30 to 125 GHz.

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