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White Papers

Choosing the Proper Elastomer for Microwave Absorption

February 18, 2014
RFMW Ltd. announces the availability of a white paper discussing the proper selection of microwave absorbing and EMI shielding products. This Technical Bulletin from MAST Technologies defines the characteristic properties of various elastomers used in the manufacture of microwave absorbing products. For example, Nitriles show excellent resistance to petroleum based fuel and oil products so are superior to Silicone in aerospace and flight line environments. For high temperature applications or where dilute acids may be encountered, a Viton® based absorber may be the best option. MAST Technologies' elastomer based absorbers are used in a variety of commercial and military applications where unwanted RF emissions cause system degradation. Applications include the reduction or elimination of cross-talk in optical transceivers, dampening of cavity resonances, absorption of surface wave emissions within equipment chassis' and magnetic dampening of tuned coils. MAST elastomers can be custom tuned for frequencies ranging from 1 MHz to greater than 40 GHz.

Echo Reduction by Modal Filtering Technique in Advanced Near Field Antenna Measurement

February 18, 2014
This whitepaper discusses echo-reduction techniques and the effectiveness of the modal filtering technique in the improvement of antenna radiating patterns and the directivity estimation in a strong echoic NF measurement situation.

Noise Figure Measurements: Vector Star, Making Successful, Confident NF Measurements on Amplifiers

February 18, 2014
The Anritsu VectorStar Noise Figure Option 041 enables the capability to measure noise figure (NF), which is the degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio caused by components in a signal chain. The NF measurement is based on a cold source technique for improved accuracy. Various levels of match and fixture correction are available for additional enhancement. VectorStar is the only VNA platform offering a Noise Figure option enabling NF measurements from 70 kHz to 125 GHz. It is also the only VNA platform available with an optimized noise receiver for measurements from 30 to 125 GHz.

Extremely Rugged 50 V LDMOS Devices Capture ISM and Broadcast Markets

January 17, 2014
The white paper â??Extremely rugged 50 V LDMOS devices capture ISM and broadcast marketsâ?? takes an in-depth look at all the performance benefits. Youâ??ll see how the superior performance of the XR LDMOS devices compares with the older VDMOS and other 50 V LDMOS technologies currently available in the market.

Overcoming High-speed Interconnect Challenges

January 17, 2014
Cloud computing, smart phones, and LTE services are causing a large increase in network traffic. Instantaneous traffic rates at internet data centers have reached 1 Tbit/s. Supporting this increased traffic, speed of IT equipment used in high-end services in data centers must be increased. This white paper discusses challenges introduced at these higher data rates and how Vector Network Analyzers can help meet these.

Automotive RF Immunity Testing using Peak Power Meters

December 17, 2013
The Boonton model 55006 USB Peak Power Sensor and 4542 benchtop Power meter used with model 57006 Peak Power sensor or model 51011 EMC power sensors are the instruments of choice for capturing, displaying and analyzing RF power for automotive EMC and RF immunity testing. This application paper focuses on discussing the usage of peak power meters in RF immunity testing for EMC purposes.

RF/Microwave Design for MMICs, MCMs and Hybrid Modules

December 17, 2013
Miniaturization of consumer products, aerospace and defense systems, medical devices, and LED arrays has spawned the development of a technology known as the multi-chip module (MCM), which combines multiple integrated circuits (ICs), semiconductors dies, and other discrete components within a unifying substrate for use as a single component. This two-part white paper outlines the steps for implementing an integrated design flow within the AWR Microwave Office® design environment for MMICs, MCMs and modules.  Design flow considerations for both a GaAs PHEMT power amplifier design as well as for an MCM microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) design on a microwave laminate module are discussed. 

Modern VNA Test Solutions Improve On-Wafer Measurement Efficiency

December 17, 2013
Semiconductor manufacturing test engineers face increased broadband millimeter wave (MMW) on-wafer testing challenges. Developing accurate models often requires measuring frequencies ranging from near DC up to 100+ GHz. Achieving accurate, stable measurements over extended time periods is challenging. This white paper discusses the impact of calibration downtime during on-wafer testing and how to enable longer time periods between calibrations.

Simplifying Power Added Efficiency Testing

December 17, 2013
In most power added efficiency (PAE) test setups, multiple instruments are used to measure RF, voltage, and current. Measurements may require the use of an RF power meter or digital oscilloscope (DSO) with diode detectors to determine the RF power, while digital multimeters are used to measure voltage and current. The Agilent Technologies 8990B peak power analyzer (PPA) provides an alternative setup which allows power added efficiency testing to be done on a single instrument.

A New Coaxial Flow Calorimeter for Accurate RF Power Measurements up to 100 W and 1 GHz

November 19, 2013
This white paper describes new methodology and instrumentation for minimizing measurement uncertainty when measuring RF power at power levels of up to 100 W below 1 GHz. The paper discusses two commonly used methods: using low-power sensors traceable through microcalorimeters, and direct measurement of high power using a flow calorimeter that converts the electrical energy from an RF source into thermal energy via a liquid-cooled resistive load. While both methods are functional, the flow calorimeter carries advantages in measurement uncertainties and process automation. The paper outlines a new approach that improves measurement accuracy with greater simplicity.

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