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White Papers

Measuring RF Power Sensor Nonlinearity

April 15, 2014
To amplify weak signals received by the antenna in communication systems, low noise amplifiers (LNAs) are deployed. LNAs are used in various applications such as GPS receivers, wireless data systems, satellite communications, cellular handsets, radio systems, etc..

Modeling a Printed VHF Balun Leveraging EM Simulation

April 15, 2014
The use of printed microstrip couplers in power amplifiers operating at microwave frequencies above 1 GHz has been well established and numerous papers have been written about the design of such structures. It is surprising, however, that little has been written about the subject of printed baluns (BALanced to UNbalanced) - electrical devices that convert between a balanced signal and an unbalanced signal. Even more surprising is that the dominant approach to power combining at VHF and UHF is via coaxial cables, which comes with inherent assembly, cost, and thermal issues.

GaN Thermal Analysis for High-Performance Systems

March 17, 2014
This paper addresses TriQuint's integrated approach to thermal design that leverages modeling, empirical measurements (including micro-Raman thermography), and finite element analysis (FEA) for high performance microwave GaN HEMT devices and MMICs. This methodology is highly effective and has been empirically validated. By properly addressing FEA boundary condition assumptions and the limitations of infrared microscopy, resulting model calculations are more accurate at both the product and end application level than traditional methods based on lower power density technology.

Wireless Telecommunications Testing with "S" Series Microwave Power Amplifiers

March 17, 2014
AR RF/Microwave Instrumentation offers a broad range of power amplifiers covering DC to 45 GHz with output power ranging from 1 to 16,000 watts. While applications include Electromagnetic Compatibility testing (EMC), RF component testing, physics (plasma generation) and chemistry (mass spectroscopy) applications, military (jammers, radar), material testing (ultrasound), medical diagnostic testing (NMR, MRI) and general lab use, this applications note focuses on a line of amplifiers that has been optimized for wireless telecommunications test use.

Long-Term, Remote Monitoring of Satellite Performance Using an Agilent High-Frequency USB Power Sensor

March 17, 2014
This application note describes typical satellite applications that require power measurements and recommends power measurement solutions. It also explains how these solutions can help simplify your work, and improve accuracy, reliability and test coverage. Also covered are new sensor functions such as built-in Gamma and S-parameter corrections and real time measurement uncertainty calculations for improved accuracy.

Achieving Excellent Vector Signal Analysis Results Using Innovative Noise, Image, and Spur Suppression Techniques

March 17, 2014
The need to measure spurious and harmonic signals is not new. However, emerging requirements include more of these measurements and specify demanding test conditions. In aerospace and defense applications, the task may be a search for known or unknown signals across a broad spectrum. In wireless communications, the need is to characterize increasingly complex devices in an ever-expanding number of conditions and device states - and do so as quickly as possible.

Techniques for Precision Validation of Radar System Performance in the Field Using Agilent FieldFox Handheld Analyzers

March 17, 2014
This application note provides an overview of field testing radar systems and Line Replaceable Units (LRU) using high-performance� FieldFox combination analyzers having multiple measurement modes including a peak power analyzer, vector network analyzer, spectrum analyzer and vector voltmeter. This application note will show several measurement examples of pulsed and secondary radar signals and also reviews the basics of� monopulse radar.

Recent History and Current Trends in GaN Reliability Testing

March 17, 2014
Accel-RF President, Roland Shaw, outlines the recent history and current trends for reliability testing and quality assurance to keep up with the shift in GaN from "research novelty" to "market reality". This white paper will give a detailed overview in the development of GaN devices and MMICs from a reliability and burn-in test perspective.

Output Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) Test Using the TEGAM 1830A RF Power Meter

February 18, 2014
When using a power meter that references to a 50 MHz, 1 mW output power reference it is important to know that the 50 MHz reference is within the specified performance limits. The TEGAM Model 1830A RF Power Meter coupled with a thermistor power sensor (also known as a thermistor mount) can accurately measure the SWR of a 50 MHz reference. By utilizing a unique function that most modern power meters do not offer; the 1830A allows the user to change the value of the thermistor mounts terminating resistance. Utilizing this method for measuring source match works well because it presents the source with two distinctly different values of Î?_Load which allows accurate measurement of the power absorbed under two different conditions. This application note will explain how we make this SWR measurement with the 1830A and a thermistor mount.

Virtual Antenna Technology: The Flexible and Off-the-Shelf Mobile Antenna Solution

February 18, 2014
The fast pace, ever changing evolution of the wireless industry puts an enormous time-to-market pressure on the engineering of every new mobile device. Being in the heart of every mobile product, the design of the RF front-end and in particular, the antenna, becomes specially cumbersome as every product currently requires a fully customized antenna. Fractus' new Virtual AntennaTM technology has been conceived to address this particular issue, proposing a new standard antenna element, the miniature mXTENDTM Antenna Booster, to virtually replace every customized antenna in virtually every mobile product.

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