Noise Figure Measurement without a Noise Source on a Vector Network Analyzer

This application note describes the noise figure measurement using the R&S Vector Network Analyzers of the ZVA and ZVT series. It explains the concept of measuring noise figure without the need for a characterized noise source. Furthermore, it discusses different measurement applications and the respective setup and implications. Some examples guide through the instrument setups and show measurement results as well.

3GPP FDD and LTE Multicell and Multi-UE Scenarios with the R&S SMU200A Signal Generator

This application note describes how to set up 3GPP FDD and LTE multicell and multi-UE scenarios with the R&S®SMU200A with a focus on routing and leveling of the baseband signals. Furthermore, it describes in detail how to determine the correct AWGN settings, i.e. how to calculate the required signal-to-noise ratio for the various scenarios.

TETRA Measurements

TETRA, the TErrestrial Trunked RAdio, is the professional mobile radio standard (PMR) used world wide by governmental safety and security authorities and organizations, as well as by private utilities from energy suppliers through to transport. Rohde & Schwarz provide test instruments idealy suited for both the development and production of TETRA base stations and user equipment, as well as for network planning, network coverage and quality of service, network monitoring and optimization, maintenance, and service. This Application Note shows examples for measurements with R&S instruments covering the entire range of TETRA test requirements.

The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of my R&S Digital Oscilloscope

The effective number of bits (ENOB) is a way of quantifying the quality of an analog to digital conversion. A higher ENOB means that voltage levels recorded in an analog to digital conversion are more accurate. In an oscilloscope the ENOB is not just determined by the quality of the analog to digital converter but by the instrument as a whole. This application note explains how to measure the oscilloscope ENOB and shows results for the R&SâRTO for different settings.

Indoor Channel Measurement and Prediction for 802.11n System

Significant improvements in the quality and reliability of indoor WLAN communications are claimed for devices with MIMO technology applying 802.11n standards, which allow users to achieve a theoretical data rate up to 300-600 Mbps on a single transmission. This paper presents an analysis of a commercial 802.11n MIMO 2×3 dual band (2.4 and 5 GHz) system focusing on the operational throughput performance over an indoor environment for Line of Sight (LOS) and Non Line of Sight (NLOS) scenarios. Combined field strength distribution, throughput, and propagation-channel environments are examined, comparing physical measurements with simulation results generated in Remcom’s Wireless InSite.

Channel Sounding in White Space Spectrum

The aim of channel sounding is to characterize a radio channel by decomposing the radio propagation path into its individual multipath components. This application note provided by Neul describes how channel sounding can be performed using the R&S SMBV100A Vector Signal Generator and the R&S FSL Spectrum Analyzer. To illustrate the procedure reference is made to 8 MHz wide white space channels in the UK.

Considerations When Specifying Frequency Control Modules and

Today, we have continually increasing needs to move, recover, and decode data in smaller bandwidths and shorter time slots with reduced errors. We also want to detect higher resolution information in a physical world of increasing electrical interference.

A Jitter Attenuator For Synchronous Ethernet Applications

While Synchronous Optical Networks (SONET) have been widely adopted for use in long-haul applications, Ethernet is preferred in edge routers and access points due to its lower cost.

Synchronous Ethernet Timing Solutions

Valpey Fisher has developed a series of products for Sync-E applications that specifically address both Jitter Transfer and Jitter Generation issues. VF products use a “crystal based” internal reference clock and an extremely narrow loop filter to produce the best performance solutions available in the industry today.

Voice and SMS in LTE

This white paper summarizes the technology options for supporting voice and short message service (SMS) in LTE, including circuit switched fallback (CSFB), SMS over SGs, and voice over LTE (VoLTE).