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White Papers

New GaN FETs, Amplifiers and Switches Offer System Engineers a Way to Reduce RF Board Space and System Prime Power

Ever-increasing demands for faster product launch times, higher performance, lower part counts and reduced costs create RF system design challenges. This paper focuses on how the latest gallium nitride (GaN) products, specifically discrete transistors, amplifiers and switches, offer design engineers enhanced flexibility and performance options by reducing RF board space and system prime power requirements.

Using RF Power Meters for EMC Testing

The complexity of modern digital equipment has caused EMI/EMC susceptibility testing to become increasingly important. Many EMC standards have been created including MILSTD- 461, IEC 61000, ISO 11451 Automotive, EN 50, and FCC part 15 that provide specific guidelines for EMC and EMI test methodologies. Early standards required a CW carrier, or single tone with constant modulation as the disturbance test signal. This article will discuss how a peak power sensor can replace an average diode detector in a field probe to measure pulse power, improve repeatability and increase dynamic range of the power measurement.

Load-Pull in the 21st Century: A Review of the Past and Look to the Future

This paper provides a comprehensive review of modern automated load-pull, including a discussion of early impedance synthesis methods, and how they were improved with breakthrough innovations such as Focus MPTTM technology and systematic high-VBW sub-1 Ω test-fixture design techniques. More recent developments are next treated, including active-loop and active-injection impedance synthesis architectures, time-domain data acquisition, and advanced data processing and visualization.

IMS: A Mobile Device Perspective

Most discussions of IMS refer to the all-IP network and the massive levels of convergence it will deliver: convergences of access technologies, services and control functions. In describing the IMS subsystem itself, most of the attention is given to the large-scale upgrades required near the heart of the network. However, developers working on cellular devices require a different viewpoint than those working at higher layers of the protocol stack. In that light, this article presents a brief overview of the IMS subsystem from the perspective of the mobile device.

Small-Signal Intermodulation Distortion in OFDM Transmission Systems

A system that utilizes OFDM/OFDMA, such as the E-UTRA (LTE) downlink or the IEEE 802.11a/g and the IEEE 802.16 physical layers, transmits OFDM symbols, each comprising a number of modulated sub-carriers carrying data or pilot symbols, with inter-subcarrier spacing being equal to or an integer multiple of a fixed frequency. The channel bandwidth (B) is determined by the number of 'occupied' (modulated) subcarriers and the subcarrier spacing.

Application Guide to RF Coaxial Connectors and Cables

There is a wide variety of coaxial connectors and cables available for use in the RF and Microwave spectrum. While often not much thought is given to these essential components, a misstep here can result in undesirable system degradation. Given that typical RF systems are comprised of any number of items, e.g. RF generators, amplifiers, attenuators, power meters, couplers, antennas, etc., it is not uncommon that a great deal of thought is given to these “high end devices while mundane items such as connectors and cables are often treated as an afterthought".

Multicarrier TD-SCMA Feasibility

There are several options for the architecture of the transmit signal path. The factors that impact transmit signal elements are introduced, followed by a discussion of the different architectures. Figure 1 shows a direct conversion architecture for an initial point of reference only. Section 6 of 3GPP TS 25.105 describes the transmit signal requirements used throughout this discussion.

Bringing Rapid Prototyping In-House

Whenever time to market is critical, rapid prototyping can produce a first draft of a new product that allows testing, evaluation, and further refinement of the product idea, which helps a company more quickly and cost-effectively transform early concepts into marketable products. At the same time, for concepts that may not make practical products, rapid prototyping can spare a company further investment time and expenses by revealing the product's flaws at an early stage of the development process.

Radio Channel Emulation for LTE User Equipment Testing

This White Paper begins by explaining how fading occurs and describing traditional methods of radio channel emulation. It continues to describe the innovative, all-digital, approach used in the Aeroflex 7100 Series Radio Test Platform. It will be demonstrated that the Aeroflex platform allows realistic testing of LTE user equipment to be performed in a way that is impractical with traditional methods.

Best Practices for Making the Most Accurate Radar Pulse Measurements

Fast, accurate radar pulse measurements are critical when designing or manufacturing radar components. Knowing how to optimize power measurement tools will help engineers meet stringent market demands. Get tips on how to make the fastest and most accurate radar pulse measurements by reading this application note. This article also includes real-world scenarios that demonstrate how to put these tips into practice with Agilent power meters and sensors.

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