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White Papers

Reliability Issues with RF Circuits Influenced by Design and Manufacturing Processes

April 30, 2015
The surge of technologies that utilize RF design, ranging from mobile phones, to wireless Internet connections and communications using Bluetooth devices, requires a comprehensive understanding of RF design, manufacturing and test.  When you also include RF applications like RF Backhaul Video, GPS, GSM and CDMA communications protocols, radar, broadband communications, WiFi, ZigBee and RF transmitters and receivers, the need for your contract manufacturer (CM) to not only comprehend the issues and challenges, but to have a deep understanding of the failure mechanisms that can cause defects that fail long before completing their intended life expectancy is critical. 

2k W L-Band Power Amplifier Design with MACOM GaN HEMTs

April 21, 2015
Often RADAR equipment designers are faced with power level requirements which far exceed the level achievable from a single solid state device. While GaN technology has brought higher power densities to the designer's toolbox, paralleling two or more devices for even higher power levels is still routinely done in the industry. For the device designer it is of great benefit to understand what the equipment designer is faced with when scaling up the power by combining multiple RF power devices. This paper provides a detailed report of the design, build, and test of a 4-stage L-band amplifier module based on four MAGX-001214-650L0S GaN RF power transistors in the final stage. The demonstration amplifier will be designed to achieve at least 2kW of peak RF power under pulsed operating conditions over the frequency band of 1.20 1.40 GHz.

Discover a Streamlined Path to Record and Playback

April 21, 2015
RF record and playback is an important method used to validate real-world GNSS (GPS, Galileo, GLONASS, and Beidou) systems. The sheer volume of data that these systems create necessitates being able to stream data to disk and analyze it later. Engineers and researchers are now recording and playing back real-world signals for all types of RF systems. They are simple to install and use and can be driven around in a vehicleâ??s trunk or backseat. These devices can record data including the exact location of a vehicle when important situations occur and precise weather and road conditions.

Introduction to RF Design

April 13, 2015
There are many wireless technologies that utilize RF design ranging from mobile phones to satellite TV, to wireless Internet connections and Bluetooth devices. This white paper will provide insight into how these technologies work, as well as considerations during the design, development and verification process. After reading this paper you'll have practical knowledge on the entire process for designing an RF system.

7 Tips for Selecting Modular Test Equipment for Wireless Applications

March 25, 2015
Many multifunction devices require wider bandwidths, complex modulation schemes and multiple transmit and receive chains, which significantly increases device complexity and test expense. This application note provides useful tips on how to select the right test instruments which enable you to reduce design time, increase production throughput, and ultimately reduce your costs associated with test.

Expanding GNSS Testing

March 25, 2015
Read this white paper to learn more about how you can expand GNSS spectrum coverage by capturing RF signals from all GNSS orbiting satellites, then storing and playing the signals back in the lab to accelerate receiver testing. In order to greatly expand recording bandwidth, you can deploy multiple tightly synchronized recorders in the field. Averna, an NI Platinum Alliance Partner, studied the example of two RP-5300 recorders (2x50 MHz channels each) that were synchronously inter-connected to form a virtual recorder with total bandwidth of 200 MHz.

Peak Power Meters for Crest Factor and Scalar Measurements using Broadband OFMD Signals

March 25, 2015
A critical component of a base station is the power amplifier (PA). Over the past two decades the PA has experienced monumental changes in its architecture and performance. Two significant improvements have been in power-added efficiency & bandwidth. Fifteen years ago a 2G basestation PA housed in a ground base station cabinet would output 5 MHz multi carrier CDMA signals at 40 W; running at 5% efficiency it would generate 760 W of heat, taking up a significant amount of space, power and cooling resources and costing thousands of dollars. Today's 4G amplifiers using Doherty architecture with predistortion has improved the efficiency of an amplifier to over 35%, significantly reducing the size and enabling integration of the PA with the transceiver and the duplexer into a remote radio head (RRH) placed near the antenna.

Simple Method of Changing the Frequency Range of a Power Amplifier Circuit

March 25, 2015
This paper offers a description of a process to change the operating frequency range of an existing power amplifier circuit using only Smith chart and transmission line calculation software, demonstrating that experimental tuning and review with a Smith chart can avoid the possibility of creating an untenable design. It also addresses the possibilities of applying this approach to other RF power outputs, frequency range conversions and bandwidth extensions, as long as several key caveats are observed.

Addressing the 4G and 5G Backhaul Capacity Challenge with Air Division Duplexing

March 2, 2015
Achieving sufficient capacity to meet the forecast backhaul needs over the next few years will be a major challenge. This white paper describes the technique of Air Division Duplexing (ADD), which makes use of MIMO and spatial multiplexing techniques to achieve simultaneous transmission and reception of data on each carrier frequency, and has been shown to achieve full duplex data rates1 in excess of 1 Gb/s in a 28 MHz channel allocation2 in the microwave bands.

Addressing Test Challenges for new LTE-Advanced Standard

February 19, 2015
While LTE-Advanced brings the promise of higher data rates, designing devices for use in LTE-A offer new test challenges. This paper provides an overview of LTE MIMO and carrier aggregation technologies and describes different methodologies for testing these new capabilities including multi-antenna techniques, MIMO spatial multiplexing, beam steering, as well as the different carrier aggregation modes.

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