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White Papers

Design of a Class F Power Amplifier Using Cree GaN HEMTs and NI AWR Design Environment to Optimize Gain, Efficiency, and Stability

December 15, 2014
This white paper discusses the design of power amplifiers employing Cree GaN HEMTs and NI AWR Design Environment / Microwave Office circuit design software to maximize power-added efficiency (PAE) by optimizing source and load pull at both fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The load-pull scripts within Microwave Office  are used to find the optimum trade-offs in power gain, efficiency, and stability. The article describes the basis of Class F PA and inverse Class F design F, as well as a new approach called continuous Class F, which enables greater bandwidths to be realized. Several practical design examples are given, including the inspection of voltage and current waveforms for both packaged and bare die transistors in the 10 to 25 watt power range for frequencies up to 2.5 GHz. In addition, the ways in which the Microwave Office load pull wizard can be used to investigate fundamental and harmonic impedances both at the input and output of transistors are discussed.

OpenRF - A Better Alternative For An Open Architecture to Support EW, EA and SIGINT Applications

December 15, 2014
Innovation that's Open - Introducing OpenRFM. Meeting new government interoperability and affordability requirements in Electronic Warfare and Signals Intelligence, requires innovative approaches in advanced RF/Microwave and digital signal processing. OpenRFM is the first RF/Microwave open system approach that leverages best available commercial-item technology to deliver sophisticated, interoperable sensor processing subsystems to dominate the electromagnetic spectrum. OpenRFM is the better alternative for affordable RF subsystems for our war fighters and allies alike.

Four Signal-Identification Techniques to Characterize Complex Systems & Environments

November 17, 2014
For decades, spectrum analyzers have been used to develop and characterize radar and electronic (EW) warfare systems. However, traditional swept measurements are rapidly becoming insufficient because most modern radar systems are adaptive. Learn about methods for monitoring EW scenarios, identifying unwanted events in the transmitted waveform, and accurately measuring found signals.� 

Integrated GaN Amplifiers: An Optimized Solution for Mid-Level Broadband RF Power

November 17, 2014
A generation ago, easy-to-use GaAs HBT based RF Gain Blocks changed the way RF engineers designed small signal amplifiers. That same evolution is now arriving in GaN technology with simple broadband solutions to medium power requirements in the 5 to 25 Watt range. This power range appears in a wide array of customer requirements, from output stages in broadband land-mobile and military handheld radios, small cell linear finals, to drivers in larger military, EW, and infrastructure power amplifiers. Entering the realm of power amplifiers though obviously brings new requirements and challenges, among them cost, size, power efficiency, and difficult thermal limitations that drive their electrical and package design. This paper will review conventional solutions, explore the tradeoffs between discrete and monolithic MMICs, and highlight the unique benefits of this new hybrid SMT solution.

A Simple Approach to Signal Via Stubs for Coaxial PCB Connector Launches

November 17, 2014
When designing printed circuit boards launches for coaxial test connectors, there are a number of aspects to consider in order to get the clearest picture of the intended device under test. Learn a relatively simple approach to modeling back-drilled vias and a rough "rule of thumb" to modeling them without electrical modeling tools.

Build Applications Tailored for Remote Signal Monitoring with the Signal Hound BB60C

October 21, 2014
The Signal Hound BB60C operates and is powered by connecting to a host PC through a USB 3.0 cable. Remote spectrum analyzer and PC management tasks are accomplished over an Ethernet connection through the use of a low cost Intel vPro- enabled PC, such as the Intel NUC, model DC53427HYE, paired with each BB60C. Intel's vPro technology keeps the Ethernet port powered on, even when the Core i5 processor is turned off, so that it can always receive commands.

Overview of Microsemi's New Line of RF Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit Devices

October 20, 2014
In May 2014, Microsemi entered the RF monolithic microwave integrated circuit market space with a new line of MMICs spanning the DC to 38 GHz frequency range and including wideband amplifier, low noise amplifier and switch devices designed for a broad range of applications. This paper will cover the new line of Microsemi MMICs, including how the highly-differentiated MMIC product attributes lead to faster design cycle times and smaller overall solutions sizes in electronic warfare, signal intelligence, military communications and aerospace applications.

50S1G6AB Solid State Amplifier - 50 W CW, 1 to 6 GHz

October 20, 2014
Model 50S1G6AB is a solid-state; 50 W Class AB amplifier design that instantaneously covers 1 to 6 GHz in one unit. When used with a sweep generator, the 50S1G6AB will provide 50 watts typical of RF power in approximately half the size of a traditional Class A design at a more economical price.

Techniques for Precision Validation of Radar System Performance in the Field

September 16, 2014
This application note provides an overview of field testing radar systems and Line Replaceable Units (LRU) using high-performance FieldFox combination analyzers having multiple measurement modes including a peak power analyzer, vector network analyzer, spectrum analyzer and vector voltmeter. This application note will show several measurement examples of pulsed and secondary radar signals and also reviews the basics of monopulse radar.

Calculating a Calibration Factor

September 16, 2014
Technicians and engineers use calibration factors when making measurements; but where do these calibration factors really come from?

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