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Test and Measurement

Externally Induced VCO Phase Noise

Description of the degradation of voltage-controlled oscillator phase noise due to noise on tuning and supply lines
Tutorial Externally Induced VCO Phase Noise This article describes the degradation of VCO phase noise due to noise on tuning and supply lines, particularly from tuning source resistance and supply voltage regulators. Dennis Colin Micronetics Wireless Hudson, NH VCOs, especially low noise wideband units, are extremely sensitive voltage-to-frequency converters,...
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Cost-effective Wireless Antenna Measurement Systems

Introduction to two new antenna measurements systems for single- or dual-axis antenna pattern measurements in the wireless frequency ranges
Product Feature Cost-effective Wireless Antenna Measurement Systems MI Technologies Duluth, GA Two new antenna measurement systems have recently been introduced that add to the MI-3600 antenna measurement product line. The MI-3600 family is comprised of 20 antenna measurement systems for single- or dual-axis antenna pattern measurements in the popular...
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A Mobile Ultra-low Phase Noise Sapphire Oscillator

Introduction to a low noise fixed-frequency X-band sapphire cavity oscillator
Product Feature A Mobile Ultra-low Phase Noise Sapphire Oscillator Poseidon Scientific Instruments Pty Ltd. Fremantle, Western Australia Radar, communications, and test and measurement designers require ever-improving phase noise performance in their master oscillator. For mobile system success, ultra-low phase noise performance must be coupled with exceptional immunity to vibration...
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Axial Ratio Measurements of Single Circularly Polarized Antennas

Presentation of a procedure for measuring the axial ratio of single circularly polarized antennas
Technical Feature Axial Ratio Measurements of Single Circularly Polarized Antennas Robert Gunnels Andrew Corp. Orland Park, IL The measurement of antenna axial ratios must be done properly if accurate results are to be obtained. When measuring on a terrestrial antenna test range, a straightforward approach is often used whereby...
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Performing Transient Analysis on PLL Frequency Synthesizers

Use of system-level simulation tool with flexible behavorial modeling capability to simulate and enhance the performance of a wireless PLL circuit
Technical Feature Performing Transient Analysis on PLL Frequency Synthesizers A PLL can be considered a subsystem within a larger communications system, so it is appropriate to analyze this type of network with the help of a system-level simulator. The use of flexible behavioral models within the simulator allows only...
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A Hardware Multichannel Simulator for Wideband Wireless Systems

Introduction to a wideband multichannel simulator with eight fading channels, 70 MHz RF bandwidth and spatial channel modeling
Product Feature A Hardware Multichannel Simulator for Wideband Wireless Systems Elektrobit Kauniainen, Finland Hardware-based multipath fading simulators have traditionally been used to generate up to two simultaneous fading channels. Mobile network testing and future wireless applications like geolocation, smart antennas and multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems, however, require...
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Application and Operation of a Double OCXO

Use of double oven-controlled crystal oscillators to improve thermal quality for highly precise frequency references
Application Note Application and Operation of a Double OCXO Timo Reinhardt FOQ Piezo Technik GmbH Bad Rappenau, Germany Central switching centers make up the junction of mobile and stationary communications. In order to handle increasing data flows, this operation is performed at ever-higher frequencies and data speeds, and the...
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An Impendance-Controlled, High Precision Wafer Probe Tip for Applications Up to 40 GHz

Development and manufacture of a high precision wafer probe tip for on-wafer measurements
Product Feature An Impedance- Controlled, High Precision Wafer Probe Tip for Applications Up to 40 GHz Suss/Rosenberger, Germany Dresden, Germany Fig. 1 The probe's contact spring assembly and transition to the coaxial air line. High precision is a vital prerequisite for the development and manufacture of high frequency cables...
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Vector Network Analyzers For Measurement to 50 GHz

A new suite of high performance vector network analyzers is featured
Cover Feature Vector Network Analyzers For Measurements to 50 GHz Agilent Technologies Inc. Santa Rosa, CA The HP 8510 vector network analyzer introduced by Hewlett-Packard in 1985 revolutionized microwave measurements by combining advanced techniques for characterizing components with the computational power afforded by the microprocessor. For the first time,...
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Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex Overview

Explanation of the improvement gained by applying space diversity techniques to the orthogonal frequency division multiplex system in a multipath fading environment
Technical Feature Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex Overview Ali Zamanian Fluor Corp. Wireless broadband, also called wireless cable, was developed to provide local access to small business and residential users for the delivery of high quality digital data, video and voice services. Orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) is a modulation...
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