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Test and Measurement

Power Meters with 20 MHz Bandwidth Designed for Communications, Wireless and Aerospace Applications

Anritsu Co.
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Accurately measuring the power in wideband signals used in 3G and pulsed systems requires a power meter with a high bandwidth. To address this market condition, the ML2487A (single-channel) and ML2488A (dual-channel) high speed peak power meters have been developed that feature 20 MHz channel bandwidth, which is a...
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A 4 GHz Fractional-N Synthesizer for Multi-mode Wireless Applications

Kaben Research
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Frequency synthesizers are fundamental building blocks in any wireless system. The need for reducing component count in wireless systems continues to drive synthesizer integration onto single systems-on-a-chip (SoC). Many multi-standard wireless products are emerging with combinations of WLAN 802.11a/b/g, GSM, Bluetooth, GPS and CDMA. One of the most challenging...
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Conformal Subsections for Accurate EM Analysis

Sonnet Software Inc.
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The fast fourier transform (FFT) approach to the method of moments (MoM) is well known for providing high accuracy, high dynamic range and robust electromagnetic (EM) analysis of planar circuits. The FFT consistently calculates the coupling between subsections to full numerical precision; no error is introduced by complex multi-dimensional...
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Design of a TRM Calibration Kit for the ZMA Coaxial Interface Using Ansoft HFSS

When new coaxial interfaces become available, it is important to validate their performance. The best way to do this is by using a calibration kit that eliminates the effects of adapters in the measurement. This article discusses the design and impleme...
Clara E. Centeno-Calero, SV Microwave Inc.
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One of the greatest challenges in characterizing new coaxial interfaces is to determine an accurate test configuration. When precision airlines are not available it is very difficult to obtain a true measurement of the device under test. It becomes necessary to design and implement calibration standards to eliminate the...
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Multicriteria VCO Design

Yuriy Kitaev, Voronezh State University; Aleksey Shulga, Voronezh Institute of Communications
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High frequency, voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) are important components of modern RF systems. They are characterized by a set of parameters, which must be analyzed and optimized (for example, phase noise, frequency tuning range, tuning linearity and output power). Many studies are dedicated to the research of VCO characteristics. 1-8...
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RF Test Fixture Basics

Scott Wartenberg, RF Micro Devices
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When the RF test system and the device-under-test (DUT) both have coaxial connectors, hooking them together to make a measurement is easy. However, as radio-frequency integrated circuits (RFIC) have shrunk in size, traditional coaxial connectors are no longer useful. With the multitude of RF component sizes and shapes found...
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A Dynamic Approach to Synthesizer Design

New developments in direct digital synthesis-based synthesizer technology
ITT Industries Inc.
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Broadband synthesizers based on direct digital synthesis (DDS) technology have traditionally led the industry in frequency agility and switching performance, but have also led in high NRE and recurring costs. These high costs stem from the custom nature of DDS-based synthesizers and have resulted in digital synthesizers being primarily...
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Fast and Accurate High Power Device Characterization with a Microstrip SOL Method

High power device characterizations, performed with a microstrip short-open-load (SOL) calibration kit, are presented. This article demonstrates an interesting alternative to the classical through-reflect-line (TRL) method, when only terminating impeda...
Pierre Bertram, Thales Air Defense
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Precise device characterization is the starting point of any good circuit design. This task can be particularly challenging when the device is a high power transistor having low input and output impedances. For devices working only under pulse conditions, specific test benches exist 1 but are rather complicated and...
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High Performance Comb Generator Multipliers

A new line of comb generator multiplier products is featured
MITEQ Inc.
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A comb generator is a device with outputs that are multiple harmonics of an input signal. The output spectral tone lines are uniformly spaced at integer multiples of the input reference. A spectrum analyzer display of the output looks much like the teeth of a comb, which is how...
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New Types of Millimeter-wave Noise Sources

Spacek Labs Inc., Santa Barbara, CA
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Used for remote sensing in various applications and environments, microwave and millimeter-wave radiometers (RM) require frequent calibration. Microwave radiometers measure noise temperature using a suitable antenna which is designed to match a scene of interest, as shown in Figure 1 . In a technical sense, if the antenna's main...
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