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Test and Measurement

Multicriteria VCO Design

June 1, 2003
High frequency, voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) are important components of modern RF systems. They are characterized by a set of parameters, which must be analyzed and optimized (for example, phase noise, frequency tuning range, tuning linearity and output power). Many studies are dedicated to the research of VCO characteristics. 1-8...
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RF Test Fixture Basics

June 1, 2003
When the RF test system and the device-under-test (DUT) both have coaxial connectors, hooking them together to make a measurement is easy. However, as radio-frequency integrated circuits (RFIC) have shrunk in size, traditional coaxial connectors are no longer useful. With the multitude of RF component sizes and shapes found...
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A Dynamic Approach to Synthesizer Design

New developments in direct digital synthesis-based synthesizer technology
May 1, 2003
Broadband synthesizers based on direct digital synthesis (DDS) technology have traditionally led the industry in frequency agility and switching performance, but have also led in high NRE and recurring costs. These high costs stem from the custom nature of DDS-based synthesizers and have resulted in digital synthesizers being primarily...
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Fast and Accurate High Power Device Characterization with a Microstrip SOL Method

High power device characterizations, performed with a microstrip short-open-load (SOL) calibration kit, are presented. This article demonstrates an interesting alternative to the classical through-reflect-line (TRL) method, when only terminating impeda...
May 1, 2003
Precise device characterization is the starting point of any good circuit design. This task can be particularly challenging when the device is a high power transistor having low input and output impedances. For devices working only under pulse conditions, specific test benches exist 1 but are rather complicated and...
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High Performance Comb Generator Multipliers

A new line of comb generator multiplier products is featured
April 1, 2003
A comb generator is a device with outputs that are multiple harmonics of an input signal. The output spectral tone lines are uniformly spaced at integer multiples of the input reference. A spectrum analyzer display of the output looks much like the teeth of a comb, which is how...
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New Types of Millimeter-wave Noise Sources

April 1, 2003
Used for remote sensing in various applications and environments, microwave and millimeter-wave radiometers (RM) require frequent calibration. Microwave radiometers measure noise temperature using a suitable antenna which is designed to match a scene of interest, as shown in Figure 1 . In a technical sense, if the antenna's main...
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Specification and Measurement of Local Oscillator Noise in Integrated Circuit Base Station Mixers

Residual phase noise from local oscillators can be degraded by additive noise of on-chip local oscillator (LO) drivers/buffers in integrated circuit mixers. Reciprocal mixing of strong RF signals with the LO noise degrades the receiver sensitivity. Spe...
April 1, 2003
Cellular base station receivers work in the presence of high level blockers/interferers while being required to sense weak signals of interest at the antenna. The interferers are usually rejected by filters but only at an intermediate frequency (IF) after the first down conversion. The LNA and mixer preceding the...
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An Enhanced 3D-TLM Solver

March 1, 2003
The main criterion when an EM engineer uses modeling and design packages is that it should enable him to meet his daily challenges of designing new products that work in their intended environment. This is now becoming a reality with the advent of the Micro-stripes Version 6.1 3D-EM modeling...
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RF Closure Shortens the Product Development Process

March 1, 2003
Applied Wave Research Inc. (AWR™) has focused on an engineering effort to eliminate uncertainty in the high frequency design process by closing gaps in existing design methodologies and strengthening the links between system specifications and circuit performance, electrical design and physical layout, and computer simulation and RF measurements. This...
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Software for Creation of Custom Radar Pulse Patterns

March 1, 2003
Creating single-emitter pulse patterns for testing radar receivers is a complex, time-consuming process because of the extensive mathematics required, whether creating the initial waveform, modifying any of its characteristics such as pulse shaping and compression, or creating custom pulse patterns. A comprehensive software application called Signal Studio for Pulse...
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