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Test and Measurement

Custom Test Fixtures Using Bolt-on Transitions and Calibration Kits

Inter-Continental Microwave (ICM)
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The term "one size fits all" has never applied to microwave test fixtures. They are instead almost always custom creations designed to serve a specific test application, and cannot easily be modified to meet other needs in the future. This has always presented a problem for cost-conscious designers. In...
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Application of GTEM Cells to Wireless Communication Transceiver Designs

The GTEM cell has been widely accepted as a sufficient tool in electromagnetic compatibility for both radiated susceptibility tests and radiated emission tests. In this article, the relationships among basic quantities such as input power, electric fie...
Ping Hui, Nokia Mobile Phones
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The gigahertz transverse electromagnetic mode (GTEM) cell was first proposed in 1987 1 and subsequently patented in 1989 by D. Konigstein and D. Hansen 2 as a high frequency variant of the transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) cell, which is also known as the Crawford cell. 3 The GTEM cell...
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A Universal Oscillator Analysis Technique that Accurately Estimates Frequency and Output Power

During the last few decades, many different oscillator models and analysis techniques have been presented. From the negative impedance model, cavity type and DROs to the general feedback type, all oscillators have one common property. They are nonlinea...
Gerhard A. Hofbauer, Institut für Nachrichtentechnik und Wellenausbreitung
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Generally, an oscillator can be seen as a positive feedback system. It usually consists of an amplifier followed by a resonator, which is fed back to the amplifier input, as shown in Figure 1 . The amplifier task is to compensate for the losses in the resonator, and the...
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Power Meters with 20 MHz Bandwidth Designed for Communications, Wireless and Aerospace Applications

Anritsu Co.
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Accurately measuring the power in wideband signals used in 3G and pulsed systems requires a power meter with a high bandwidth. To address this market condition, the ML2487A (single-channel) and ML2488A (dual-channel) high speed peak power meters have been developed that feature 20 MHz channel bandwidth, which is a...
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A 4 GHz Fractional-N Synthesizer for Multi-mode Wireless Applications

Kaben Research
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Frequency synthesizers are fundamental building blocks in any wireless system. The need for reducing component count in wireless systems continues to drive synthesizer integration onto single systems-on-a-chip (SoC). Many multi-standard wireless products are emerging with combinations of WLAN 802.11a/b/g, GSM, Bluetooth, GPS and CDMA. One of the most challenging...
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Conformal Subsections for Accurate EM Analysis

Sonnet Software Inc.
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The fast fourier transform (FFT) approach to the method of moments (MoM) is well known for providing high accuracy, high dynamic range and robust electromagnetic (EM) analysis of planar circuits. The FFT consistently calculates the coupling between subsections to full numerical precision; no error is introduced by complex multi-dimensional...
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Design of a TRM Calibration Kit for the ZMA Coaxial Interface Using Ansoft HFSS

When new coaxial interfaces become available, it is important to validate their performance. The best way to do this is by using a calibration kit that eliminates the effects of adapters in the measurement. This article discusses the design and impleme...
Clara E. Centeno-Calero, SV Microwave Inc.
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One of the greatest challenges in characterizing new coaxial interfaces is to determine an accurate test configuration. When precision airlines are not available it is very difficult to obtain a true measurement of the device under test. It becomes necessary to design and implement calibration standards to eliminate the...
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Multicriteria VCO Design

Yuriy Kitaev, Voronezh State University; Aleksey Shulga, Voronezh Institute of Communications
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High frequency, voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) are important components of modern RF systems. They are characterized by a set of parameters, which must be analyzed and optimized (for example, phase noise, frequency tuning range, tuning linearity and output power). Many studies are dedicated to the research of VCO characteristics. 1-8...
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RF Test Fixture Basics

Scott Wartenberg, RF Micro Devices
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When the RF test system and the device-under-test (DUT) both have coaxial connectors, hooking them together to make a measurement is easy. However, as radio-frequency integrated circuits (RFIC) have shrunk in size, traditional coaxial connectors are no longer useful. With the multitude of RF component sizes and shapes found...
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A Dynamic Approach to Synthesizer Design

New developments in direct digital synthesis-based synthesizer technology
ITT Industries Inc.
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Broadband synthesizers based on direct digital synthesis (DDS) technology have traditionally led the industry in frequency agility and switching performance, but have also led in high NRE and recurring costs. These high costs stem from the custom nature of DDS-based synthesizers and have resulted in digital synthesizers being primarily...
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