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Test and Measurement

Active Multipliers and Dividers to Simplify Synthesizers

A new family of active frequency multipliers and dividers is featured this month
Modern frequency synthesis uses a combination of frequency multiplication and frequency division to generate the required data and carrier signals for microwave radio and radar applications. Frequency multiplication increases the carrier frequency while increasing the phase noise of the carrier by 20log(N), where N is the multiplication factor. Conversely,...
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Precision Eb/No Generators for BER Testing to 44 GHz

With the continually increasing complexity of digital modulation techniques employed in wireless and satellite communications systems, instruments that accurately generate and maintain a set level of bit energy-to-noise density ratio (E b /N o ) have become valued tools in optimizing bit-error rate (BER) performance. These instruments have been...
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An RF Signal Generator Offering Full Digital, Vector and Analog Modulation

The humble signal generator has come out of its modest, functional shell and taken on a streamlined, compact, state-of-the-art persona with the development of the 3410 series. This family of digital RF signal generators has evolved in response to the worldwide growth of second- and third-generation wireless communications systems...
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A Broadband Hybrid Solid-state and TWT Amplifier

Development of a broadband microwave amplifier for testing in the 800 MHz to 18 GHz frequency range
Test applications that require microwave power from 1 to 18 GHz are usually addressed by two amplifiers, a solid-state unit to cover the low frequency range and a traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for the higher range. The input signal must be switched between the two amplifiers and, if there...
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SAW Voltage-controlled Oscillators

Presentation of applications that use voltage-controlled surface acoustic wave oscillator technology to provide high performance telecom solutions
Voltage-controlled surface acoustic wave (SAW) oscillators (VCSO) have been used for many years in both commercial and military applications. The low phase noise allows frequency multiplication to higher frequencies for use as sources, such as local oscillators in radar and other microwave systems. The excellent tuning linearity provides outstanding...
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A Simulation Builder for Versatile Framework Integration

Introduction to a versatile simulation builder designed to integrate industry-strength simulation technology with external design frameworks
As the complexity of wireless systems grows and requirements become more demanding, the task facing analog/RF engineers is not getting any easier. In today's rapid-paced working environment, time-to-market demands accurate and fast results from device simulations. To meet these demands for the effective management and analysis of design data...
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A Revolution in the Time Domain

A new modeling and design package for time domain software is featured on this month's cover
CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® Version 4 (CST MWS) is a major new release of the company's flagship 3D EM microwave modeling and design package. Over 1400 changes, enhancements and new features have been added to make this already powerful tool truly comprehensive and an invaluable resource. The microwave design engineer...
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The Receiver Noise Equation: A Method for System Level Design of an RF Receiver

Introduction to a new equation used to simplify the system level design of an RF receiver
Noise is a limiting factor for sensitive reception. In recent communication receivers, noise, along with many external factors, including intermodulation, reciprocal mixing and spurious response, may disturb the sensitive reception of the desired signal. Thus, much consideration for the noise and other factors that disturb the signal reception and...
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A Graded-gap Gunn Diode Voltage Controlled Oscillator for Adaptive Cruise Control

Introduction to a surface-mount, substrate-based Gunn diode voltage controlled oscillator for use in a 77 GHz frequency-modulated continuous wave radar sensor
Microwave sensors are increasingly finding commercial applications, particularly in the automotive industry. Here, advanced features are used to distinguish vehicles, while safety is a major consideration in new car purchases. Therefore, it is not surprising that radar technology has been adopted and implemented in adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems....
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