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Software & CAD

A Measurement-based Behavioral Model for I/Q RF Modulators

This article describes a nonlinear behavioral modeling technique for application to I/Q modulated communication channels. The model data was gathered by independent measurements of an I/Q modulator and amplifier, using vector signal generators and anal...
The W-CDMA standard expresses transmit quality in terms of EVM and ACLR, and receive quality in bit error ratio (BER). These quality measurements are simple scalar numbers representing a very complicated system. Modern communications channels (still) consist of a number of concatenated functions such as baseband (BB) processor, DAC,...
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A Fast and Flexible Circuit Board Plotter

When employing circuit board plotters for product development the main requirement is for fast, efficient and flexible operation. Consequently, the high costs incurred by the long waiting periods inherent when externally procuring circuit board prototypes, particularly those with RF substrates, can be avoided. The ProtoMat 95s/II meets these requirements,...
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Active Multipliers and Dividers to Simplify Synthesizers

A new family of active frequency multipliers and dividers is featured this month
Modern frequency synthesis uses a combination of frequency multiplication and frequency division to generate the required data and carrier signals for microwave radio and radar applications. Frequency multiplication increases the carrier frequency while increasing the phase noise of the carrier by 20log(N), where N is the multiplication factor. Conversely,...
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Practical Design Consideration of a Modified Structure for a Planar Multiport Power Divider at 2 GHz

This article proposes a modified structure at 2 GHz of IMT-2000 for the planar multiport power divider published in the literature.<sup>8-10</sup> Design parameters for the practical realization of the structure have also been investigated using HFSS (...
A power divider is a basic microwave and millimeter-wave circuit dividing the input RF power by an arbitrary ratio. This circuit has a wide range of applications such as antenna systems, power amplifiers, power oscillators, balanced mixers and so on. Multiport power dividers/combiners have been used in power amplifiers...
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Using Load Pull Analysis and Device Model Validation to Improve MMIC Power Amplifier Design Methodologies

This article describes a methodology for the design of a 2 GHz monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier (PA) using a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) process. It is based on the use of modern software tools and advanced loa...
There is certainly no shortage of information about designing power amplifiers these days, and several books address the subject quite admirably. 1-6 However, as well as these books cover the theory and underlying logic of such designs, they do not tell the reader precisely how to do it. As...
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Considerations in Capacitor-pairing to Obtain Nonstandard Part Values

Series- and parallel-combining of surface-mount capacitors is a standard approach to realize semi-arbitrary capacitance when designing a printed circuit board layout. This pairing of components is often necessary as surface-mount parts are available in only a limited number of fixed values, such as 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 pF. This article...
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Balancing the Budgets: The Importance of Dedicated Software for System Design

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) was derived from code-division multiple access (CDMA), and is officially known today as IMT-2000 direct spread. It is a third-generation (3G) mobile wireless technology offering much higher data speeds to mobile and portable wireless devices than commonly offered...
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A CAD Tool Utilizing Fast Hybrid MM/FE/MoM FD Techniques

A three-dimensional electromagnetic-based CAD software tool is featured on this month's cover
To meet the rapidly increasing demand for advanced microwave components and antennas in wireless terrestrial and satellite-based communications, accurate and efficient CAD tools are critical. Due to efforts made during the 1990s - the decade of global 3D electromagnetic (EM) field solvers - the task of accurate analysis of...
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The Design of Bandpass Filters Considering Frequency Dependence of Inverters

In general, practical inverters have frequency-dependent impedance or admittance. The equivalent circuits of several widely used inverters are investigated, consisting of ideal inverters plus frequency-dependent real and/or immittance parts. One of the...
By using impedance or admittance inverters, microwave bandpass filters can be designed more conveniently with only one kind of resonator. Theoretically, the inverters have to be frequency independent. However, this is not true for practical cases. One of the most serious degradations in frequency response of a bandpass filter...
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Research@mwjournal.com

<I>Microwave Journal</I>'s second annual overview of microwave technology research projects currently being investigated by European academic institutions and commercial organizations
Today's investment in and commitment to meaningful, commercially viable research will determine the shape and prosperity of tomorrow's microwave industry. Following its introduction in 2001 the second Microwave Journal guide to European research projects highlights the studies being undertaken by academic and commercial establishments to develop the innovations that...
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