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Software & CAD

An Enhanced 3D-TLM Solver

The main criterion when an EM engineer uses modeling and design packages is that it should enable him to meet his daily challenges of designing new products that work in their intended environment. This is now becoming a reality with the advent of the Micro-stripes Version 6.1 3D-EM modeling...
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Enterprise Software for RF Device Characterization

In today's competitive marketplace the characterization of RF semiconductor devices for modeling, design, applications and process improvement must be faster, more efficient, and more repeatable and accurate as companies strive to improve their product performance, design productivity and time to market. However, help is on hand with the Wavevue...
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RF Closure Shortens the Product Development Process

Applied Wave Research Inc. (AWR™) has focused on an engineering effort to eliminate uncertainty in the high frequency design process by closing gaps in existing design methodologies and strengthening the links between system specifications and circuit performance, electrical design and physical layout, and computer simulation and RF measurements. This...
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Software for Creation of Custom Radar Pulse Patterns

Creating single-emitter pulse patterns for testing radar receivers is a complex, time-consuming process because of the extensive mathematics required, whether creating the initial waveform, modifying any of its characteristics such as pulse shaping and compression, or creating custom pulse patterns. A comprehensive software application called Signal Studio for Pulse...
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Pulsed I-V for Nonlinear Modeling

Current-voltage characterization under suitably performed pulsed bias conditions can more closely approximate the dynamic behavior of transistors and diodes under large signal RF conditions. Some understanding of the basics and a relatively simple inst...
Accurate, nonlinear, active device models are critical to achieving design success for circuits such as power amplifiers, oscillators and mixers, using computer-aided engineering (CAE) software such as Agilent Technologies' Advanced Design System (ADS™), Applied Wave Research's Microwave Office™, Eagleware's Genesys™ or Ansoft's Serenade™. Prior work has made it clear...
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Developing Sophisticated Models for Capacitors, Inductors and Other Passive Components

It is useful to model the non-ideal characteristics of capacitors, inductors and other passive components by using multi-element "schematics," where each element represents some portion of the device's behavior. Traditional models for these devices suf...
Traditional capacitor and inductor models have consisted of two or three elements (capacitor examples are shown in Figure 1 ). The two-element models provide a simple way to define the device. From a circuit designer's viewpoint, the two-element models may suffice for applications where the component is being used...
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Memory Effect Reduction for LDMOS Bias Circuits

Memory effects have taken a very important role in today's design of base station power amplifiers. For example, they are responsible for limiting the cancellation when pre-distortion is applied to a power amplifier system.<sup>1</sup> This study show...
Electrical memory effects are defined as changes in amplitude and phase of distortion components caused by modulation frequency. There are several ways of measuring memory effects. One of the most common is to plot the phase and amplitude of the distortion parameters with respect to the tone spacing in...
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A Low Noise Wideband Microwave Oscillator Using a Tunable Microstrip Combline Filter

In RF measurement equipment, microwave synthesized signal sources, broadband digital satellite receivers and many other applications, broadband and low phase noise oscillators are becoming more and more important. A wide tuning range and good phase noi...
Typical oscillator designs use a common-base or common-collector circuit for generating a negative resistance at one port, which is usually terminated with a parallel or series LC-resonant circuit. The main problems in this design are the bandwidth of the negative resistance, which cannot be easily extended over one frequency...
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Effects of Grounding and Bias Circuit on the Performance of High Frequency Linear Amplifiers

The design of a high frequency amplifier is normally based on the S-parameters supplied by the manufacturer of the active device. However, in a practical design, these parameters are affected by the DC bias network and the grounding of the active devic...
In the design of high frequency power amplifiers, one of the parameters is the stability of the active device. The stability of the active device is determined by the Rollet stability factor K. If K > 1, then the active device is unconditionally stable and the design of the...
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Hybrid Synthesizer Tutorial

Use of a variety of synthesis blocks to create frequency synthesis systems with enhanced performance characteristics
Frequency synthesizers are used in a variety of communications and timing systems. Phase-locked loops (PLL) have been the "workhorse" of the majority of traditional synthesizers and clock generation circuits. However, there are other types of synthesis blocks available such as direct digital synthesizers (DDS), mixers, frequency doublers and dividers...
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