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Semiconductors / Integrated Circuits

A Reduced-size Power Divider Using the Coupled Line Equivalent to a Lumped Inductor

A new method of reducing the size of a power divider using quarter-wave length transmission lines is proposed. The method utilizes a combination of shorted coupled lines instead of lumped inductors and capacitors. The new hybrid is simply fabricated wi...
In many applications, such as balanced power amplifiers, mixers and antenna systems, power dividers/combiners are required. Power dividers using quarter-wave lines become prohibitively large at the lower frequencies and result in MMIC chips of larger size and higher cost. The lumped-element approach, which uses lumped inductors and capacitors, is...
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Design of a MESFET Frequency Multiplier - Theory and Simulation

The design of nonlinear circuits is usually viewed as a challenge, mainly because of the difficulty in determining the accurate model that describes the device behavior over a wide range of conditions, including varying frequency and power level. The m...
The basic principle of operation of a MESFET multiplier is that the device is biased for a particular conduction angle, based on the harmonic frequency to be generated. A generalized circuit schematic of a MESFET frequency multiplier is shown in Figure 1 . It can be seen that the...
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Design of a TRM Calibration Kit for the ZMA Coaxial Interface Using Ansoft HFSS

When new coaxial interfaces become available, it is important to validate their performance. The best way to do this is by using a calibration kit that eliminates the effects of adapters in the measurement. This article discusses the design and impleme...
One of the greatest challenges in characterizing new coaxial interfaces is to determine an accurate test configuration. When precision airlines are not available it is very difficult to obtain a true measurement of the device under test. It becomes necessary to design and implement calibration standards to eliminate the...
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Multicriteria VCO Design

High frequency, voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) are important components of modern RF systems. They are characterized by a set of parameters, which must be analyzed and optimized (for example, phase noise, frequency tuning range, tuning linearity and output power). Many studies are dedicated to the research of VCO characteristics. 1-8...
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Dual Slant Linearly Polarized Antenna for Broadband High Power Applications

Enhanced performance is needed from antennas, radomes and other microwave components to support ever-increasing functionality for military communications and electronic warfare (EW) applications. There is a continuing demand for antennas with broader bandwidth, higher power handling and better controlled radiation patterns, while at the same time reducing size and...
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Using Guided Wavelength as a Basis for the Design of Dielectric Rod Antennas

When designing dielectric rod antennas for maximum bandwidth, maximum gain, minimum beamwidth and/or low side lobes, design parameters reported in the literature are provided in terms of free-space wavelength. While this methodology lends itself well to other antenna types, it is not as useful when used to describe dielectric...
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An Aircraft Single-antenna FM Radio Altimeter

Advantages of a frequency modulated single-antenna radio altimeter, including lower cost and weight, improved accuracy and higher altitude range
As is well known, there are two general types of altimeter systems - a pulse radar altimeter and a frequency modulated, continuous wave (FM-CW) radio altimeter. Aircraft radio altimeters typically operate at altitudes from 0 to 8000 feet utilizing separate antennas for transmit and receive. Such radio altimeters have...
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Design and Operation of Automatic Gain Control Loops for Receivers in Modern Communications Systems

This article is intended to provide insight into the effective operation of variable gain amplifiers (VGA) in automatic gain control (AGC) applications.
This article is intended to provide insight into the effective operation of variable gain amplifiers (VGA) in automatic gain control (AGC) applications. Figure 1 is a general block diagram for an AGC loop. The input signal passes through the VGA to produce the output level to be stabilized. The...
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