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Semiconductors / Integrated Circuits

Using Load Pull Analysis and Device Model Validation to Improve MMIC Power Amplifier Design Methodologies

This article describes a methodology for the design of a 2 GHz monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier (PA) using a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) process. It is based on the use of modern software tools and advanced loa...
November 1, 2002
There is certainly no shortage of information about designing power amplifiers these days, and several books address the subject quite admirably. 1-6 However, as well as these books cover the theory and underlying logic of such designs, they do not tell the reader precisely how to do it. As...
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Considerations in Capacitor-pairing to Obtain Nonstandard Part Values

November 1, 2002
Series- and parallel-combining of surface-mount capacitors is a standard approach to realize semi-arbitrary capacitance when designing a printed circuit board layout. This pairing of components is often necessary as surface-mount parts are available in only a limited number of fixed values, such as 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 pF. This article...
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Balancing the Budgets: The Importance of Dedicated Software for System Design

November 1, 2002
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) was derived from code-division multiple access (CDMA), and is officially known today as IMT-2000 direct spread. It is a third-generation (3G) mobile wireless technology offering much higher data speeds to mobile and portable wireless devices than commonly offered...
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Single- and Dual-branch Downconverter ICs for Wireless Base Station Applications

October 1, 2002
A new family of single- and dual-branch converter integrated circuits has been introduced for use in mobile infrastructure base stations. The new CV series converters are all priced below $10 in volume and are available in a 6 x 6 mm QFN package, as shown above. Their small size...
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An LTCC Double-balanced Mixer

October 1, 2002
Double-balanced mixers are used extensively in transmitters and receivers. For frequencies below 5 GHz, the designs are normally realized using ferrite-based transformers, because they are very compact and their technology is mature. As the operating frequency increases, distributed element baluns become smaller in size and more attractive. Semiconductor-based mixers...
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Specifications and Definitions for Quadrature Demodulators and Receiver Design Measurements

This article discusses the common and questionable definitions of the specifications for quadrature demodulators, including gain, intercept point and noise figure. Emphasis is on the mapping between single-tone measurement data and the modulated signal...
October 1, 2002
The quadrature demodulator is used in either heterodyne or homodyne receivers. In commercial communication receivers, the local oscillator frequency ranges from a few kilohertz to a few gigahertz. It is usual to test the individual part with a single tone to avoid the complexity of the baseband waveform. The...
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Reviewing the Basics of Suspended Striplines

Suspended striplines are widely used for several reasons. They provide high Q-factor, wide bandwidth and good temperature stability. This tutorial reviews some of the basic principles and new concepts for suspended striplines.
October 1, 2002
There are several reasons for the wide use of printed transmission lines. They are simple to produce, they operate over a wide bandwidth, and have small weight and dimensions. The earliest form of printed transmission lines was the stripline ( Figure 1a ). 1,2 The printed stripline consists of...
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A Highly Linear 17 to 24 GHz SMT Power Amplifier

Introduction to a new surface-mount technology-packaged power amplifier for wireless communications applications
September 1, 2002
A new surface-mount technology (SMT)-packaged power amplifier has been introduced for wireless communications applications, including millimeter-wave point-to-point radio, local multipoint distribution services (LMDS), satellite communications (SATCOM) and very small aperture terminal (VSAT) use. The model XP1000P1 GaAs MMIC surface-mount power amplifier is a two-stage amplifier optimized for linear output...
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A CAD Tool Utilizing Fast Hybrid MM/FE/MoM FD Techniques

A three-dimensional electromagnetic-based CAD software tool is featured on this month's cover
September 1, 2002
To meet the rapidly increasing demand for advanced microwave components and antennas in wireless terrestrial and satellite-based communications, accurate and efficient CAD tools are critical. Due to efforts made during the 1990s - the decade of global 3D electromagnetic (EM) field solvers - the task of accurate analysis of...
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A Compact Monopulse Feed for Tracking Antennas

Introduction to the requirements for a compact monopulse feed for use in a Cassegrain antenna configuration
September 1, 2002
With the steady improvements in tracking radar technologies over the past twenty years, the diameter requirements for antennas has been reduced to match the improvements in transmitter power and receiver sensitivity. This has led to a need for shorter feeds for use in Cassegrain configurations. Antenna feeds have recently...
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