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Passive Components

Developing Sophisticated Models for Capacitors, Inductors and Other Passive Components

It is useful to model the non-ideal characteristics of capacitors, inductors and other passive components by using multi-element "schematics," where each element represents some portion of the device's behavior. Traditional models for these devices suf...
March 1, 2003
Traditional capacitor and inductor models have consisted of two or three elements (capacitor examples are shown in Figure 1 ). The two-element models provide a simple way to define the device. From a circuit designer's viewpoint, the two-element models may suffice for applications where the component is being used...
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RF Coplanar Probe Basics

Explanation of the construction, characteristics and usage of coplanar waveguide probes
March 1, 2003
Coplanar waveguide probes, also referred to as coplanar probes, are the method of choice for launching RF signals on and off a wafer. This article explains their construction, RF characteristics and proper usage. Before the advent of coplanar probes, finding the RF behavior of a die on a wafer...
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High Power Surface-mount Circulators and Isolators

February 1, 2003
Non-reciprocal ferrite devices are widely used in RF engineering as efficient means for rerouting and suppressing reverse signals. Ferrite devices for various applications are currently available for the entire microwave frequency band. However, the expanding utilization of RF and microwaves in wireless cellular and satellite communication systems revived the...
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A Modular Switch Filter Bank

A new modular switch filter bank is featured
February 1, 2003
For many years switch filter banks have been designed as custom RF assemblies with long lead-time, large NRE charges and extreme custom packaging and specifications. A new modular approach to switch filter bank design has been introduced that provides the design engineer with the opportunity to maintain a custom...
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A Low Noise Wideband Microwave Oscillator Using a Tunable Microstrip Combline Filter

In RF measurement equipment, microwave synthesized signal sources, broadband digital satellite receivers and many other applications, broadband and low phase noise oscillators are becoming more and more important. A wide tuning range and good phase noi...
February 1, 2003
Typical oscillator designs use a common-base or common-collector circuit for generating a negative resistance at one port, which is usually terminated with a parallel or series LC-resonant circuit. The main problems in this design are the bandwidth of the negative resistance, which cannot be easily extended over one frequency...
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A 28 GHz 2 x 16 Antenna T/R Switch Matrix

January 1, 2003
Fabricating a high performance 2 x 16 transmit/receive (T/R) switch to feed a millimeter-wave Rotman or Lunenburg lens antenna array has in the past been a complex and space-consuming configuration. A new T/R switch assembly has been designed that features a compact, unique package containing a 2 x 16...
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Interactive Interdigital Filter Design Using MMICAD Software

January 1, 2003
Successful microwave circuit realization requires flexible circuit analysis tools that allow engineers to prototype, analyze and verify their circuits. Today, available software tools offer standard features such as frequency analysis, tuning and optimization, but are differentiated by their model libraries and special customization capabilities. This article describes the design...
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Practical Design Consideration of a Modified Structure for a Planar Multiport Power Divider at 2 GHz

This article proposes a modified structure at 2 GHz of IMT-2000 for the planar multiport power divider published in the literature.<sup>8-10</sup> Design parameters for the practical realization of the structure have also been investigated using HFSS (...
November 1, 2002
A power divider is a basic microwave and millimeter-wave circuit dividing the input RF power by an arbitrary ratio. This circuit has a wide range of applications such as antenna systems, power amplifiers, power oscillators, balanced mixers and so on. Multiport power dividers/combiners have been used in power amplifiers...
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Considerations in Capacitor-pairing to Obtain Nonstandard Part Values

November 1, 2002
Series- and parallel-combining of surface-mount capacitors is a standard approach to realize semi-arbitrary capacitance when designing a printed circuit board layout. This pairing of components is often necessary as surface-mount parts are available in only a limited number of fixed values, such as 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 pF. This article...
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An LTCC Double-balanced Mixer

October 1, 2002
Double-balanced mixers are used extensively in transmitters and receivers. For frequencies below 5 GHz, the designs are normally realized using ferrite-based transformers, because they are very compact and their technology is mature. As the operating frequency increases, distributed element baluns become smaller in size and more attractive. Semiconductor-based mixers...
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