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Passive Components

An Actively-controlled Microwave Reflecting Surface with Binary-pattern Modulation

This article describes an actively-controlled reflecting surface, capable of modulating the microwave energy incident upon it. The surface is a composite structure holding an array of conventional semiconductor diodes excited with a set of pulses in a ...
For specific applications, there is a need for materials or composite structures which can reflect and/or absorb the electromagnetic (EM) energy incident upon them in a desired or controllable fashion. Such reflective EM absorbing/reflecting materials 1-3 are useful in designing smart radar cross-section (smart RCS) surfaces and radio frequency...
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Subminiature Broadband Coaxial Switches for VXI Applications

In recent years the VXIbus architecture has proven to be a versatile interface standard for instruments from many diverse manufacturers to operate within the same mainframe. The VXIbus incorporates the user-friendly features of instruments designed to operate within the General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB) (for example, using ASCII-level programming)...
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High Performance UMTS Circulators and Isolators

The data rate evolution necessary to meet new mobile telecommunication standards (9.6 kb/s for GSM, 115.2 kb/s for GPRS, 384 kb/s for EDGE and 2 Mb/s for UMTS) demands the use of wider bandwidth and bandwidth-efficient linear modulation techniques. Therefore, telecommunication manufacturers require improved specifications for 3G standards. In...
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Design and Evaluation of a High Selectivity Combline Bandpass Filter

Quasi-planar combline bandpass filters have been realized in suspended substrate stripline. The coupling between non-adjacent resonators and the composite effect of N quasi-TEM modes excited from N-coupled lines are considered. The design approach is b...
Advances in MIC and MMIC technology have motivated the demand for compact, high performance filters, diplexers and multiplexers used in microwave receiver systems. Combline bandpass filters have been in great demand because of their structural compactness and excellent wide stop-band performance. They are easy to fabricate in printed circuit...
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A Deterministic Method for Optimizing VSWR

By using in conjuction both frequency and time domain reflection measurements, it is possible to positively identify the specific circuit discontinuities that contribute to a given VSWR lobe. Corrective action can then be readily determined for optimum...
Improving VSWR is typically an iterative trial-and-error exercise when utilizing either frequency or time domain information. For example, while circuit modifications which decrease time domain reflectometry (TDR) "bumps" (discontinuities) are generally a good thing, decreasing a specific TDR bump does not necessarily improve VSWR within a frequency band of...
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An X-band, Low Cost, LTCC Double-balanced Mixer

Double-balanced mixers are used extensively in transmitters and receivers. For frequencies above 5 GHz the designs are normally realized using strip line and microstrip techniques. This is because distributed element baluns become smaller in size and more attractive for design as the frequency increases. Semiconductor-based mixers are the most...
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