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Industry News

Multipin Headers with Integrated Filtering

Thunderline MultiPins™ address the many space and time saving issues facing today’s high frequency designers. In addition to being more compact than individual feedthrus, the use of MultiPins saves installation time and automatically maintains critical pitch and spacing dimensions. They are available in a variety of styles from 2...
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65 GHz VNA Test Port Extension Cables

Most VNA measurements require the use of extension cables as part of the test set-up. Measurement accuracy can be severely degraded if these cables are not stable over time and flexure. Thus, the choice of measurement cables is as important as the instrument itself. The MegaPhase® VN series are...
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Frequency Extension Source Modules to Extend Signal Generator Capability from 50 to 325 GHz

Since the mid-1940s, there have been requirements for test sources above 50 GHz. Magnetrons were first pressed into this application during the early to mid-50s, and by the middle of the decade, some manufacturers, such as Demornay Bonardi, were constructing multipliers using a cartridge diode with a window milled...
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A One-box Solution for Spectrum and Vector Signal Analysis

A spectrum analyzer is an important instrument for all RF/microwave engineers. Measurements of spectral purity, phase noise and spurious signals are everyday tasks for which a spectrum analyzer is the instrument of choice. Additionally, in today’s world of digitally modulated signals, modulation accuracy is a significant category of measurements...
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Automation and Real-time Verification of Passive Component S-parameter Measurements Using Loss Factor Calculations

An automated S-parameter testing approach, built around a LabVIEW program, is described that adds important capabilities to a microwave test setup. A real-time check on S-parameter data using total loss calculations is shown to be a good indicator of m...
In developing microwave models, real-time verification of characterization data should be considered a priority to ensure its integrity. Sound models must be built upon accurate measurement data, and, as is generally the case, the ‘garbage in – garbage out’ principle applies to model extraction. Even if an instrument calibration...
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Trigger-Capture-Analyze: Three Steps Toward Understanding Today's Complex RF Signals

The recent proliferation of new RF applications has brought about a dramatic increase in spectrum usage, particularly in the unlicensed bands used by many of the new devices. Crowding virtually guarantees the presence of RF interference. This has led to adaptive techniques that can change power, data rate and...
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Noise Can Be Good, Too

In communications, noise is an annoying phenomenon. Noise occurs naturally and is random, contrary to human-engineered intelligence. Engineers define the signal-to-noise ratio as the most important quantity that qualifies any information-transmitting system fit or unfit for use. Researchers utilize sensitive radio and microwave receivers (sometimes also transmitters) to obtain...
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Increasing RF Device Test Throughput with Better Instrument Coordination

Knowledgeable use of the programmability of today’s multi-function instruments can go a long way toward reducing test costs and improving manufacturing productivity.
Testing speed is important for all electronic components, but it is vital for low price two- and three-terminal devices such as diodes and transistors. Before RF tests can be conducted, the devices must be tested for DC operation. For diodes, that includes forward voltage, reverse breakdown voltage and leakage...
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New Behavioral Models Facilitate Fast and Accurate Simulation of Sigma-delta Fractional-N Synthesizers Using Ansoft Designer™

By offering extremely low phase noise combined with fast acquisition times, Sigma-delta fractional-N synthesizers are ideally suited to meet the requirements for the emerging 2.5 and 3G digital wireless services, including General Packet Radio Service ...
Fractional-N synthesizers are highly desirable in communication systems because of their high frequency resolution output. This resolution is made possible by dithering the divide value using the output of a sigma-delta modulator. A typical sigma-delta fractional-N frequency synthesizer is shown in Figure 1 . The tri-state phase frequency detector...
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Pitfalls to Avoid When Using Load-pull Contours for PA Design

Load-pull testing of power transistors usually employs wideband electromechanical tuners. Harmonic signal components, generated by a nonlinear device under test (DUT), must be terminated with known impedances in order to generate a meaningful set of data. This is not possible if a harmonic load-pull set-up is not available, in...
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