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White Papers

Optimized Device Design: A Demonstration of Parameterization, Optimization, and High-performance Computing with Hardware Accelerated FDTD

As technology has advanced, tools have been developed that go beyond merely analyzing devices to tools that design devices. These tools allow the user to select basic structures with variable dimensions, size constraints, and performance goals and then iterate automatically until the best possible design is found. The user is freed from the burden of monitoring the progress of each individual simulation and can devote time to other tasks. This evolutionary step in simulation software is improving the productivity of engineers developing next generation devices in a variety of fields.
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Millimeter-wave Measurements Using Converters of the R&S ZVA Family

This application note describes the R&S ZVA_110 converters, which extend the frequency range of the R&S ZVA family of vector network analyzers to cover the millimeter-wave range. They cover the W band (75 to 110 GHz). Several measurement examples are included in this paper, explaining in detail how to configure a converter-based VNA system.
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Setting Strategies for 4 x 4 Print Beam Forming Networks

In building a strategy for effective integrated-circuit design, it is important to understand the characteristics of different RF and microwave printed beam forming networks (BFN). Optimization of the design process for BFN can reduce unnecessary costs and design iterations, thus allowing designers time to improve the quality of the product. The design process includes various stages from analysis of requirements to final design documentation, balancing and trading off factors such as electrical performance, size, cost, etc.
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Solutions for Securing Successful First-pass Component Design

At one time, linear systems and components were designed using a patchwork of instrumentation and measurements. This approach was quickly replaced by scattering parameters (S-parameters), which unified the multiple instruments and measurements and enabled just one instrument, the network analyzer, to make measurements like gain, isolation and match with a single connection. For more than 40 years, S-parameters have stood as one of the most important of all the foundations of microwave theory and techniques. They are related to familiar measurements such as S11 input match, S22 output match, S21 gain/loss, and S12 isolation, and can be easily imported into electronic simulation tools. Today, S-parameters are commonly used to analyze and model the linear behavior of RF and microwave components. Unfortunately, current industry trends toward increasing energy efficiency, higher output power and longer battery life are forcing many linear devices to operate in a nonlinear fashion. Measuring this behavior requires a solution that is much more deterministic in nature.
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LTE Wireless Standard Demands New Testing Approaches and Instrumentation

This white paper offers a brief overview of LTE technology and some of the associated test challenges RF testing engineers now face.
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Broadband Leadership in the Licensed Microwave Sector

The Motorola Wireless Broadband portfolio offers high-speed Point-to-Point, Point-to-Multipoint, Mesh, WiFi and WiMAX networks that support data, voice and video communications, enabling fixed and mobile applications for public and private systems.
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CoMPA™: An Innovation in Satellite Antenna Technology

Starling’s patented CoMPA™ (Coherent Multi Panel Antenna) technology is based on coherently splitting (or combining) a flat-panel, large antenna array into multiple plates. This mechanical splitting enables achievement of a very low-profile, high-gain antenna, with equivalent performance to that of much higher profile antenna. Starling antennas are Kuband-based and provide both receipt and transmission of heavy data files, voice, and video.
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T3 Mixer Primer: A Mixer for the 21st Century

Intermodulation distortion (IMD) suppression is a critical issue in modern military and commercial RF/microwave systems. Pressed by the demands imposed by distortion‐sensitive digital modulation formats, modern systems routinely specify linearity requirements that are impossible to attain using conventional approaches. To meet these new challenges, Marki Microwave has introduced the Two‐Tone‐Terminator (T3) mixer family. The T3 mixer is the most sophisticated mixer circuit on the market today and offers unparalleled performance when compared to all other mixer technologies. This Primer describes the key operating principles of the T3 mixer and compares the performance against traditional double balanced mixers.


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Understanding Phase Versus Temperature Behavior "The Teflon Knee"

Understanding complex microwave transmission concepts can be difficult. Understanding complex material properties can also be difficult. Understanding phenomena that combine both of these can be mind boggling. Phase stability versus temperature is one of these phenomena. This application note will provide the reader with a basic grasp of the situation.


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Solutions for Sharing IP-Protected Nonlinear Behavioral Models with System Integrators

Abstract:

RF system design is a notoriously complex and challenging endeavor, made even more so by today’s stringent time-to-market requirements. Meeting these requirements places increasing pressure on system integrators to speed the system-design process wherever possible. One viable option for addressing these concerns lies in the ability to evaluate real circuit-level designs from design houses/component vendors within the system context, early in the design process and prior to the availability of a physical hardware prototype.


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