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Military Microwaves Supplement
Recent Advances in Radar Technology
Using Calibration to Optimize Performance in Crucial Measurements
R & S Claims New Standards in High End Spectrum Analyzers
German contractor Rohde & Schwarz (R & S) is claiming that its newly launched FSU3 and FSU8 spectrum analysers set 'new standards' in dynamic range, measurement accuracy and speed within high end equipments of their type. In backing up its claim, the company notes an average displayed noise level of 158 dB (at 1 Hz bandwidth and with 1 dB compression of the input mixer at 13 dBm) and a typical third-order intercept point of 25 dBm for the equipments, together with the ability to simultaneously process signals with widely different levels without mutual corruption. Again, the use of fast data transfers using either an IEC/IEEE bus or an Ethernet local area network, together with 'optimised' test routines, are claimed to offer extremely high measurement speeds. Here, the equipments are noted as being capable of 30 measurements per second in manual mode and as having minimum sweep time and zero span values of 2.5 ms and 1 µs, respectively. In addition to all common test routines, R & S notes that the FSU family also provides adjacent channel power measurement as standard and resolution bandwidths of up to 50 MHz. At resolution bandwidths of up to 30 kHz, fast Fourier transform is available as an option, facilitating, it is claimed, the ability to take measurements at speeds of up to 300 times those of equipments using digital filters. The FS-K3, FS-K4 and FS-K5 software packages support the FSU family (covering the 20 Hz to 3.6 GHz band in its FSU3 model and the 20 Hz to 8 GHz range with the FSU8 device). Of these, the FS-K3 tool addresses noise figure, noise temperature and gain measurement while the FS-K4 package automates phase noise measurement over a complete offset frequency range and determines residual frequency modulation. The FS-K5 application firmware is designed for radio frequency and modulation measurements.
Slovenian Provider Picks Siemens for DSL Technology
Slovenian telecommunications provider Telecom Slovenije has awarded German supplier Siemens Information and Communication Networks (SICN) a contract covering the supply of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology. Working with in-country partner company Iskratel, SICN will install and commission 20,000 asynchronous DSL ports at 100 locations throughout Slovenia during the course of 2001. Based on Siemens' Attane XpressLink DSL accesses multiplexer, the system will increase the capacity of Slovenije's existing copper wire infrastructure in order to facilitate broadband data transport.
Chinese Radar Insight
In the wake of the EP-3E Hainan incident, 'International Report' has received insight into current mainland Chinese radar technology in the form of details of the Type 2405 shipborne surveillance radar. Developed by the Nanjing Marine Radar Institute (NMRI), the Type 2405 sensor is described as being a C-band (4 to 8 GHz) multifunction equipment that is designed for shipboard air and surface surveillance, target indication and anti-shipping missile defence. The radar is equipped with a cosecant2 lightweight stabilised antenna that provides 50° coverage and a sidelobe value of 30 dB. Stabilisation is in both pitch and roll, and the equipment makes use of a 'wideband, high power, transistor-travelling wave tube' transmitter chain that incorporates solid-state modulators and a wideband linear receiver. The Type 2405 is further noted as making use of stable frequency synthesis, frequency agility, digital moving target indication, constant false alarm rate, sidelobe suppression and variable polarisation (horizontal and vertical). Data display is by means of a colour raster terminal and the sensor's antenna assembly incorporates an integral identification friend or foe array. At the 3 dB point, Type 2405 has an azimuth beamwidth of 1.5° and the sensor is described as having azimuth and range accuracy values of 0.3° RMS and 50 m RMS, respectively. The type's resolution values are given as being 2° in azimuth and 150 m in range and its antenna scans at the rate of either 15 or 30 rpm, depending operator selection. NMRI further notes that the Type 2405's antenna assembly (including its stabilisation platform) weighs less than 520 kg and that its free space coverage extends to an altitude and range of plus 9 km and plus 96 km, respectively.
French Air Force Orders Giraffe Radars
The French Air Force has ordered a small quantity (thought to be four) of Giraffe AMB radars for use in an air defence application. Produced by Swedish contractor Ericsson Microwave, Giraffe AMB is a G/H-band (4 to 8 GHz) 3-D active phased array sensor that was originally developed for use in Sweden's RBS 23 BAMSE and RBS 97 air defence missile systems. System features include the ability to detect targets from ground level up to an altitude of more than 20 km, and automatic helicopter detection mode, threat evaluation and automatic combat control functions, and identification friend-or-foe Mk XII compatibility. Alongside France, the Giraffe AMB radar is known to have been procured by the Swedish Army (under the designation UndE 23) and Coastal Artillery arm. In this latter context, the radar is a 2-D sensor, is mounted on a MOWAG armoured command and control vehicle, and is designated as the KAPRIS system.
Europe Creates Super Missile Entity
After a protracted round of negotiations, European contractor's BAE Systems, the European Aeronautic, Defence and Space (EADS) Company and Finmeccanica have agreed to the establishment of the pan-European MBDA missile group. To create MBDA, the missile activities of Matra BAe Dynamics, EADS Aerospatiale Matra Missiles and the missile sector of Alenia Marconi Systems are being amalgamated, with BAE Systems and EADS each owning 37.5 percent of the business and Finmeccanica holding the remaining 25 percent. At the point of its creation, MBDA is understood to have an orderbook valued at Euro 13 billion (US$10.9 B), making it the world's second largest missile contractor after Raytheon Systems. The new company is to be headed up by Matra BAe Dynamics' current chief executive officer Fabrice Brégier, with BAE Systems' Alan Garwood and Finmeccanica's Mario Di Donato being appointed chief operating officers.
Looking to the future, EADS Deutschland is reported as being extremely keen to see German contractor LFK merge its missile business into the new entity. As currently configured, EADS owns 70 percent of LFK and the company would like to consolidate it with Germany's other major airborne weapons manufacturer BGT. Dhiel (BGT's parent company) does not favour this and EADS is taking the attitude that if no LFK/BGT deal can be struck by the third quarter of this year, it will go ahead with rolling LFK into the MBDA group on its own.
The creation of MBDA has also impacted the BAE Systems/Finmeccanica Alenia Marconi Systems (AMS) joint venture. Here, AMS loses its missile business to MBDA but gains BAE Systems' Combat and Radar Systems subsidiary and will continue operating with a business portfolio that encompasses radar, command and control systems, simulation and training systems, and air traffic management systems. Balancing the two companies' 50 percent holdings in AMS is understood to have involved Finmeccanica in further investment in the Euro 1.3 billion turnover organisation. Britain's David Singleton has been appointed chief executive officer of the revised AMS with Antonio Bontempi as his deputy. *
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